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Full text of "United States dual-use exports to Iraq and their impact on the health of the Persian Gulf war veterans : hearing before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, second session ... May 25, 1994"

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S.  Hrg.  103-900 


UNITID  STATES  DUALUSE  EXPORTS  TO  IRAQ 
AND  THEIR  IMPACT  ON  THE  HEALTH  OF  TOE 
PERSIAN  GULF  WAR  VEIIRANS 


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SECOND  SESSION 

ON 

UNITED  STATES  CHEMICAL  AND  BIOLOGICAL  WARFARE-RELATED 
DUAL-USE  EXPORTS  TO  IRAQ  AND  THEIR  POSSIBLE  IMPACT  ON  THE 
HEALTH  CONSEQUENCES  OF  THE  PERSIAN  GULF  WAR 


MAY  25,  1994 


Printed  for  the  use  of  the  Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Urban  Affairs 


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S.  Hrg.  103-900 


UNITED  STATES  DUALUSE  EXPORTS  TO  IRAQ 

AND  THEIR  IMPACT  ON  THE  HEALTH  OF  THE 

PERSIAN  GULF  WAR  VETERANS 


HEARING 

BEFORE  THE 

COMMITTEE  ON 

BANKING,  HOUSING,  AND  URBAN  AFFAIRS 

UNITED  STATES  SENATE 

ONE  HUNDRED  THIRD  CONGRESS 

SECOND  SESSION 

ON 

UNITED  STATES  CHEMICAL  AND  BIOLOGICAL  WARFARE -RELATED 
DUAL-USE  EXPORTS  TO  IRAQ  AND  THEIR  POSSIBLE  IMPACT  ON  THE 
HEALTH  CONSEQUENCES  OF  THE  PERSIAN  GULF  WAR 


MAY  25,  1994 


FVinted  for  the  use  of  the  Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Urban  Affairs 


U.S.  GOVERNMENT  PRINTING  OFFICE 
86-558  CC  WASHINGTON  :  1994 

For  sale  by  the  U.S.  Government  Printing  Office 
Superintendent  of  Documents,  Congressional  Sales  Office,  Washington,  DC  20402 
ISBN  0-16-047069-2 


COMMITTEE  ON  BANKING,  HOUSING,  AND  URBAN  AFFAIRS 
DONALD  W.  RIEGLE,  JR.,  Michigan,  Chairman 


ALFONSE  M.  D'AMATO,  New  York 
PHIL  GRAMM,  Texas 
CHRISTOPHER  S.  BOND,  Missouri 
CONNIE  MACK,  Florida 
LAUCH  FAIRCLOTH,  North  Carolina 
ROBERT  F.  BENNETT,  Utah 
WILLIAM  V.  ROTH,  JR.,  Delaware 
PETE  V.  DOMENICI,  New  Mexico 


PAUL  S.  SARBANES,  Maryland 
CHRISTOPHER  J.  DODD,  Connecticut 
JIM  SASSER,  Tennessee 
RICHARD  C.  SHELBY,  Alabama 
JOHN  F.  KERRY,  Massachusette 
RICHARD  H.  BRYAN,  Nevada 
BARBARA  BOXER,  California 
BEN  NIGHTHORSE  CAMPBELL,  Colorado 
CAROL  MOSELEY-BRAUN,  Illinois 
PATTY  MURRAY,  Washington 

Steven  B.  Harris,  Sta/f  Director  and  Chief  Counsel 

Howard  A.  Menell,  Republican  Sta/f  Director 

James  J.  TUITE,  III,  Professional  Staff  &  Special  Assistant  to  the  Chairman  for 

National  Security  Issues  and  Dual-Use  Export  Policies 

Robin  EddingTON,  Senior  Fellow,  Women's  Executive  Leadership  Program 

Edward  M.  Malan,  Editor 


(II) 


CONTENTS 


WEDNESDAY,  MAY  25,  1994 

Page 

Opening  statement  of  Chairman  Riegle   1 

Opening  statements,  comments,  or  prepared  statements  of: 

Senator  D'Amato  6 

Prepared  statement  87 

Senator  Boxer  7 

Senator  Faircloth  9 

Senator  Bond   11 

Prepared  statement  88 

Senator  Bennett  12 

Senator  Kerry  58 

Senator  Moseley-Braun  90 

Senator  Campbell  90 

WITNESSES 

Edwin  Dom,  Under  Secretary  of  Defense  for  Personnel  and  Readiness,  U.S. 
Department  of  Defense,  Washington,  DC;  accompanied  by:  Dr.  Theodore 
M.  Prociv,  Deputy  Assistant  to  the  Secretary  of  Defense  for  Chemical  and 
Biological  Weapons,  U.S.  Department  of  Defense,  Washington,  DC;  and 
Dr.  John   Kriese,   Chief  Officer  for  Ground   Forces,    Defense   Intelligence 

Agency,  Washington,  DC  14 

Prepared  statement  91 

Response  to  written  questions  of: 

Senator  Riegle   104 

Senator  D'Amato  121 

AFTERNOON  SESSION 

Dr.  Mitchell  Wallerstein,  Deputy  Assistant  Secretary  for  Counterproliferation 

Policy,  U.S.  Department  of  Defense,  Washington,  DC  60 

Dr.  Gordon  C.  Oehler,  Director,  Nonproliferation  Center,  Central  Intelligence 

Agency,  Washington,  DC  67 

Prepared  statement  93 

Additional  Material  Supplied  for  the  Record 

Letters  concerning  Persian  Gulf  War  Health  Issues  98 

Department  of  Veterans'  Affairs  Gulf  War  Syndrome  Registry  102 

U.S.  Army  Medical  Materiel  Agency — Medical  Customer  Shopping  Guide  for 

Saudi  Arabia  196 

May  25,  1994  Committee  Report  225 

October  7,  1994  Committee  Report  434 

(III) 


UNITED  STATES  DUAL-USE  EXPORTS  TO  IRAQ 

AND  THEIR  IMPACT  ON  THE  HEALTH  OF  THE 

PERSIAN  GULF  WAR  VETERANS 


WEDNESDAY,  MAY  25,  1994 

U.S.  Senate, 
Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Urban  Affairs, 

Washington,  DC. 

The  Committee  met  at  10:10  a.m.,  in  room  SD-106  of  the  Dirk- 
sen  Senate  Office  Building,  Senator  Donald  W.  Riegle,  Jr.  (Chair- 
man of  the  Committee)  presiding. 

OPENING  STATEMENT  OF  CHAIRMAN  DONALD  W.  RIEGLE,  JR. 

The  Chairman.  The  Committee  will  come  to  order. 

Let  me  welcome  all  those  in  attendance  this  morning. 

This  is  a  very  important  hearing  and  we'll  take  whatever  time 
we  need  today  to  pursue  all  of  the  issues  that  Members  want  to 
raise.  Of  course,  we  have  a  follow-on  hearing  later  in  the  afternoon. 

I'm  going  to  give  an  opening  statement  that  summarizes  what 
brings  us  to  this  hearing  this  morning.  Then  I'm  going  to  call  on 
Senator  D'Amato  and  other  Members  in  the  order  in  which  they've 
arrived. 

I  also  want  to  acknowledge  the  presence  in  the  room  of  some  of 
our  Gulf  War  veterans  who  are  suffering  from  the  Gulf  War  Syn- 
drome. I  appreciate  very  much  both  their  service  to  this  country 
and  their  attendance  this  morning. 

Back  in  1992,  the  Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Urban 
Affairs,  which  is  the  Committee  which  has  Senate  oversight  for  the 
Export  Administration  Act,  held  an  inquiry  into  the  United  States 
export  policy  to  Iraq  prior  to  the  Persian  Gulf  War.  During  that 
hearing  it  was  learned  that  U.N.  inspectors  had  identified  many 
United  States-manufactured  items  that  had  been  exported  from  the 
United  States  to  Iraq  under  licenses  issued  by  the  Department  of 
Commerce,  and  that  these  items  were  used  to  further  Iraq's  chemi- 
cal and  nuclear  weapons  development  and  missile  delivery  system 
development  programs. 

The  Committee  has  worked  to  ensure  since  that  time  that  this 
will  not  happen  again  and  the  Export  Administration  Act  legisla- 
tion we  reported  out  yesterday  by  a  19  to  nothing  bipartisan  vote 
is  an  illustration  of  that. 

Nearly  a  year  ago,  several  Persian  Gulf  War  veterans  from 
Michigan  contacted  my  office  to  complain  that  the  Department  of 
Veterans'  Affairs  was  not  adequately  treating  the  myriad  of  medi- 

(1) 


cal  symptoms  that  they  were  suffering  from.  These  veterans  were 
suffering  from  what  has  come  to  be  known  as  Gulf  War  Syndrome. 

Many  of  them  were  being  treated  symptomatically,  with  no  long- 
lasting,  positive  effects  on  their  health.  Others  were  being  referred 
for  psychiatric  evaluation  because  personnel  in  the  Department  of 
Veterans'  Affairs  were  at  a  loss  to  explain  their  physical  symptoms. 

We'll  come  back  to  that  later  today. 

Then,  in  July  1993,  the  Czechoslovakian  Minister  of  Defense  an- 
nounced that  Czechoslovak  chemical  decontamination  units  had  de- 
tected the  chemical  warfare  agent  Sarin  in  areas  of  northern  Saudi 
Arabia  during  the  early  phases  of  the  Gulf  War.  They  had  attrib- 
uted the  detections  to  fallout  from  coalition  bombing  of  Iraqi  chemi- 
cal warfare  agent  production  facilities. 

In  September  1993,  I  released  a  staff  report  on  this  issue  and, 
in  turn,  issued  an  amendment  to  the  fiscal  year  1994  National  De- 
fense Authorization  Act,  that  provided  preliminary  funding  for 
medical  research  of  the  illness  and  an  investigation  of  reported  ex- 
posures and  sicknesses  of  our  Gulf  War  veterans. 

When  I  released  that  report,  the  estimates  of  the  number  of  vet- 
erans suffering  from  these  unexplained  illnesses  varied  from  hun- 
dreds, according  to  the  Department  of  Defense,  to  thousands,  ac- 
cording to  the  Department  of  Veterans'  Affairs.  It  is  now  believed 
that  tens  of  thousands  of  U.S.  Gulf  War  veterans  are  suffering 
from  the  symptoms  associated  with  the  Gulf  War  Syndrome.  Mean- 
while, hundreds,  and  possibly  thousands,  of  servicemen  and  women 
still  on  active  duty  are  reluctant  to  come  forward  for  fear  of  losing 
their  jobs  and,  in  turn,  losing  their  medical  care  and  coverage. 

These  Gulf  War  veterans  are  reporting  muscle  and  joint  pain, 
memory  loss,  intestinal  and  heart  problems,  fatigue,  nasal  conges- 
tion, urinary  urgency,  diarrhea,  twitching,  rashes,  sores,  and  a 
number  of  other  symptoms.  They  began  experiencing  these  mul- 
tiple symptoms  during  and  after,  often  many  months  after,  their 
tour  of'^duty  in  the  Gulf. 

I  might  say  that,  in  virtually  every  case,  these  veterans  were  in 
excellent  physical  condition  when  they  went  over  to  the  Gulf  In 
fact,  under  the  voluntary  Army  arrangements,  you  have  to  be  in 
exceptionally  good  condition  today  just  to  qualify  for  service  in  the 
Armed  Forces,  and  that  was  particularly  true  for  many  who  were 
asked  to  serve  in  the  Gulf  War.  So  we're  talking  about  people  with 
exceptionally  strong  health  profiles  before  their  service  in  the  Gulf. 

The  Department  of  Defense,  when  first  approached  regarding 
this  issue  by  the  Committee  staff,  contended  that  there  was  no  evi- 
dence that  U.S.  forces  were  exposed  to  chemical  warfare  agents. 
However,  on  September  7,  1993,  a  Defense  Department  medical  of- 
ficial told  my  staff  that  the  issue  of  chemical  and  biological  warfare 
agent  exposure  had  not  been  explored  because  it  was  the  position 
of  "military  intelligence"  that  such  exposures  never  occurred. 

Then,  during  a  November  10,  1993,  press  briefing  at  the  Penta- 
gon, the  Department  of  Defense  acknowledged  that  the  Czech  gov- 
ernment did  detect  chemical  agents  in  the  Southwest  Asia  theater 
of  operations.  After  analyzing  the  results  of  the  Czech  report,  the 
Department  of  Defense  concluded  that  the  detections  were  unre- 
lated to  the  "mysterious  health  problems  that  had  victimized  some 
of  our  veterans." 


The  Ranking  Member  of  this  Committee,  Senator  D'Amato,  and 
I  have  released  today  a  report  detailing  an  inquiry  into  this  issue 
that  provides  important  new  information  based  upon  Government 
documentation  and  other  official  reports. 

The  report  establishes,  first  of  all,  that,  contrary  to  the  Depart- 
ment of  Defense  assertions,  there  is  clear  evidence  that  the  chemi- 
cal agents  detected  by  the  Czechs  and  others  were  at  sufficient  lev- 
els to  harm  U.S.  troops. 

Second,  it  establishes  that  the  chemical  agent  detectors  used  by 
U.S.  forces  during  the  Gulf  War  were  not  sufficiently  sensitive  to 
detect  sustained  low  levels  of  chemical  agent  and  to  monitor  per- 
sonnel for  contamination.  U.S.  Army  Material  Safety  Data  Sheets, 
called  MSDS,  indicate  that  chronic  exposure  to  levels  of  over  1/ 
10,000th  milligram  per  cubic  meter  of  Sarin  is  hazardous  and  re- 
quires the  use  of  protective  equipment.  The  minimum  amount  of 
chemical  agent  required  to  activate  the  automatic  chemical  agent 
detection  alarm  that  was  commonly  used  during  the  war  was  1,000 
times  greater  than  this  amount. 

In  other  words,  the  levels  for  the  alarms  used  in  the  war  were 
set  at  a  rate  1,000  times  greater  than  the  actual  level  that  we 
know  from  other  military  records  to  be  damaging  and  hazardous  to 
people  if  they  are  exposed  to  them  over  a  period  of  time. 

Third,  the  report  provides  detailed  weather  and  information  from 
unclassified  satellite  imagery  which  confirms  that  during  much  of 
the  war,  the  smoke  plumes  from  the  coalition  bombings  were  mov- 
ing directly  over  U.S.  troop  positions. 

Fourth,  it  explains  that  the  United  States  did  not  have  effective 
biological  agent  detectors  deployed  with  the  capability  to  confirm 
whether  or  not  troops  were  being  exposed  to  biological  agents. 

During  a  November  1993,  unclassified  briefing  for  Members  of 
the  United  States  Senate,  in  response  to  direct  questioning,  a  DoD 
official  said  that  the  Department  of  Defense  was  withholding  clas- 
sified information  on  the  exposure  of  U.S.  forces  to  biological  mate- 
rials. 

Then  in  a  Department  of  Defense-sponsored  Conference  on 
Counterproliferation  held  at  Los  Alamos  National  Laboratory  on 
May  6  and  7,  1994,  this  same  official  admitted  that  biological  agent 
detection  is  a  priority  development  for  the  Department  of  Defense 
since  there  currently  is  no  biological  agent  detection  system  fielded 
with  any  U.S.  forces  anywhere  in  the  world. 

Fifth,  it  provides  evidence  that  the  United  States  shipped  biologi- 
cal materials  to  Iraq  which  contributed  to  the  Iraqi  biological  war- 
fare program. 

The  report  also  draws  upon  direct  eyewitness  accounts  from  full 
interviews  of  more  than  600  Gulf  War  veterans  who  were  directly 
interviewed  by  Committee  staff.  A  representative  cross-section  of 
30  of  these  individuals  is  presented  in  full  detail  in  the  report,  but 
it  is  very  illustrative  of  the  entire  body  of  interviews  that  we  have 
now  taken,  and  we  are  continuing  to  take  interviews  and  we  will 
continue  to  do  so. 

The  information  provided  by  the  veterans  indicated  that  expo- 
sure to  chemical  and  possibly  biological  agents  was  widespread — 
widespread!  Detections  were  confirmed  by  chemical  specialists  de- 
ployed in  Saudi  Arabia,  in  Kuwait,  and  in  Iraq. 


Despite  the  fact  that  during  the  air  war,  the  chemical  alarms 
continued  to  sound  frequently,  and  despite  the  fact  that  the  Czech, 
the  French,  and  some  United  States  commanders  were  confirming 
they  were  sounding  because  of  trace  amounts  of  nerve  agents  in 
the  air,  from  the  coalition  bombings  of  Iraqi  chemical  facilities, 
storage  depots  and  bunkers.  United  States  troops  were  often  told 
that  there  was  no  danger.  Some  reported  to  the  Committee  that 
they  turned  the  alarms  off  because  they  sounded  so  often  during 
the  air  war. 

After  the  war,  in  addition  to  tens  of  thousands  of  other  chemical 
munitions,  U.N.  inspectors — now  listen  carefully  to  this — U.N.  in- 
spectors found  and  destroyed  28  SCUD  chemical  warheads  contain- 
ing the  chemical  nerve  agent  Sarin. 

According  to  a  Department  of  Defense  official,  these  warheads 
had  been  obtained  from  the  former  Soviet  Union.  The  report  also 
cites  an  increasing  number  of  cases  of  spouses  and  children  who  re- 
port the  same  symptoms  as  the  veterans,  indicating  a  strong  possi- 
bility of  the  transmissibility  of  the  syndrome.  This  is  an  extremely 
worrisome  issue  that  now  confronts  those  families  in  the  country. 
The  emerging  pattern  of  information  in  this  area  in  terms  of  family 
problems  of  spouses  and  children  requires  immediate  additional  in- 
vestigative effort.  And  I  don't  want  to  hear  the  Defense  Depart- 
ment or  anybody  else  in  the  Executive  Branch  of  Government  say 
that  we  don't  have  the  money  to  do  this  job.  We  waste  money  on 
a  million  other  things. 

[Applause.] 

It's  time  we  got  to  the  bottom  of  this  problem. 

The  report  also  recommends  the  immediate  declassification  and 
release  of  all  classified  or  special  access  information  relating  to 
Iraqi  chemical  and  biological  warfare  programs  and  information  re- 
lated to  the  detection  or  discovery  of  chemical,  chemical  precursor, 
or  biological  warfare-related  materials.  It's  time  to  put  it  all  out 
into  the  light  of  day. 

It  demands  that  a  thorough  and  detailed  epidemiological  study 
be  conducted  on  all  Gulf  War  veterans — on  all  of  them — to  deter- 
mine the  origins  and  causes  of  the  illnesses  and  the  report  of  trans- 
mission of  the  syndromes  to  family  members.  It  calls  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  a  comprehensive  medical  testing  regime  for  all  sympto- 
matic Gulf  War  veterans  and  their  family  members. 

We  have  not  had  a  situation  like  this  before  and  it's  not  enough 
to  use  a  Catch-22  part  of  the  Government  military  establishment 
to  say  that  if  a  family  member  is  now  sick  because  of  an  exposure, 
that  we  don't  have  any  procedure  to  provide  health  care  for  them. 
I  think  we  have  to  establish  a  procedure  to  provide  health  care  for 
them.  That's  part  of  our  responsibility.  That's  what  America  is  sup- 
posed to  be  all  about — about  honor  and  decency  with  respect  to  our 
service  men  and  women,  and  certainly  to  their  families  that  are 
now  showing  these  same  symptoms  and  these  same  medical  prob- 
lems. 

The  report  also  calls  for  the  positive  presumption  of  service  con- 
nection for  the  purposes  of  receiving  necessary  medical  treatment 
and  determining  disability  compensation  and  vocational  rehabilita- 
tion eligibility. 


We  can't  have  a  situation  in  this  country  where  we  have  veterans 
that  have  served  10,  20,  or  30  years,  who  went  over  to  the  Persian 
Gulf  in  excellent  health  and  who  have  come  home  and  who  are 
sick,  like  some  in  this  room  today,  and  have  the  military  establish- 
ment, in  effect,  walk  away  from  them.  And  not  only  not  provide  the 
kind  of  adequate  medical  treatment  and  coverage,  but  to  leave 
them  in  a  situation  that  when  they're  out  of  the  service,  and  if  they 
don't  have  a  service-connected  disability  adequate  to  support  them- 
selves, they  can't  possibly  go  out  and  get  private  health  insurance. 
The  insurance  companies  don't  want  them,  or  if  they  do,  they 
charge  a  premium  that  those  veterans  can't  afford  to  pay. 

We're  not  going  to  have  this  in  America.  The  Executive  Branch 
had  better  wake  up,  from  the  Secretary  of  Defense  up  and  down 
the  line.  It's  time  we  give  a  positive  presumption  of  service  connec- 
tion for  the  purposes  of  receiving  necessary  medical  treatment  and 
determining  disability  compensation  and  vocational  rehabilitation 
eligibility.  It's  the  minimum  we  can  do. 

Finally,  it  calls  for  Government-financed  health  care  for  the 
spouses  and  children  determined  to  have  contacted  a  service-con- 
nected illness  from  a  Gulf  War  veteran. 

If  the  Department  of  Defense  intended  to  conceal  these  exposures 
during  the  Gulf  War  to  avoid  the  physical  and  mental  disruption 
their  use  would  have  had  on  our  tactical  planning  and  deployment 
at  the  time,  then  there  might  be  some  way  of  understanding,  at 
least  in  a  battle  situation,  why  that  might  be  their  thinking.  But 
now  that  the  war  is  over,  hoping  to  avoid  responsibility  for  the  cas- 
ualties of  this  conflict  is  an  entirely  different  matter. 

Over  the  last  8  months,  our  office  has  been  contacted  by  over 
1,000  Gulf  War  veterans  directly.  In  addition  to  veterans  from  the 
United  States,  we've  also  been  contacted  by  sick  veterans  of  the 
Canadian,  British,  and  Australian  armed  services  who  served  in 
the  Persian  Gulf  and  who  also  suffer  from  this  disabling  syndrome. 

This  is  not  a  mental  problem  with  the  veterans.  It  may  be  a 
mental  problem  over  at  the  Defense  Department.  It  is  not  a  mental 
problem  with  the  veterans. 

[Applause.] 

The  veterans  of  the  Gulf  War  have  asked  us  for  nothing  more 
than  the  assistance  that  they  have  earned.  I  think  any  refusal  to 
come  to  their  full  assistance  and  to  that  of  their  family  members 
who  also  have  these  problems  now,  would  cause  any  thinking  per- 
son to  just  question  the  integrity  of  the  operation  that's  calling  the 
signals  with  respect  to  getting  to  the  bottom  of  this  issue. 

I  want  to  just  say  one  other  thing  before  yielding  to  Senator 
D'Amato,  and  I  appreciate  very  much  his  leadership  and  concern 
on  this  issue. 

I've  served  here  now  for  28  years,  through  seven  Presidents.  I've 
seen  our  Government  lie  to  us  before  in  other  war  situations.  I  saw 
how  long  it  took  for  our  Grovernment  to  understand  we  had  a  prob- 
lem with  Agent  Orange.  We  had  sick  veterans  all  across  this  coun- 
try trying  to  cope  with  the  problems,  and  their  family  members  try- 
ing to  cope  with  the  problems,  but  nobody  could  figure  it  out  in  the 
military  establishment.  We're  not  going  to  have  that  repeated  in 
this  situation. 


If  I  find  anybody  that  comes  before  our  Committee  and  who, 
under  oath,  gives  false  testimony,  incomplete  testimony,  misleading 
testimony,  or  disingenuous  testimony  designed  to  create  a  false  pic- 
ture, we're  going  to  pursue  that  individual  with  every  single  piece 
of  authority  that  we  have  to  see  to  it  that  they  don't  serve  in  this 
Government  and  that  whatever  the  truth  is,  that  the  truth  come 
out.  We're  not  going  to  tolerate  that  kind  of  situation. 

It  has  nothing  to  do  with  party.  I've  been  in  both  parties  in  my 
service  in  the  Congress  and  I've  served  under  Presidents  of  both 
parties  and  Secretaries  of  Defense  under  both  parties.  It  has  noth- 
ing to  do  with  that.  It  has  to  do  with  what  the  truth  is,  and  about 
honor  and  integrity,  and  our  military  structure,  and  our  respon- 
sibility to  our  veterans  and  their  families. 

I  care  a  lot  more  about  what  happens  to  the  veterans  than  I  do 
about  our  former  Secretaries  of  Defense.  In  fact,  at  the  end  of  the 
day,  they're  a  lot  more  important  because  they're  the  ones  that  go 
out  and  get  the  job  done,  especially  when  the  dirty  work  has  to  be 
done. 

[Applause.] 

So  I'm  tired  of  all  of  the  circuitous,  incomplete,  and  mental 
lapses  that  I'm  getting  out  of  the  military  establishment.  I  want  to 
say  it  as  bluntly  as  I  can  because  we're  not  going  to  settle  for  that, 
and  if  anybody  thinks  so  they're  sadly  mistaken. 

I  urge  everybody  to  read  this  report  today.  If  we  have  to  have 
a  hearing  where  we  bring  the  veterans  in  one  by  one  and  have  100, 
200,  300,  or  400  and  do  it  day  after  day  after  day  to  get  the  atten- 
tion of  the  people  at  the  top  of  this  Government,  then  I'm  prepared 
to  do  it. 

This  is  not  going  to  be  an  issue  that  gets  swept  under  the  rug. 
We've  seen  that  happen  before.  It's  not  going  to  happen  now,  not 
with  anything  that  falls  under  the  jurisdiction  of  this  Committee. 

Senator  D'Amato. 

[Applause.] 

OPENING  STATEMENT  OF  SENATOR  ALFONSE  M.  D'AMATO 

Senator  D'Amato.  Mr.  Chairman,  let  me  begin  today  by  express- 
ing my  appreciation  for  your  commitment  to  addressing  the  serious 
issues  that  are  raised,  whether  the  exposure  to  chemical  and  bio- 
logical agents  during  the  Gulf  War  with  Iraq  are  causes  of  what 
has  come  to  be  known  as  the  Gulf  War  Syndrome. 

Whether  or  not  the  exposure  to  immunization  from  the  possible 
effects  of  these  chemicals  may  have  played  a  role  in  bringing  about 
a  situation  in  which  no  one  can  deny,  cannot  be  explained  away  by 
simply  saying  that  these  are  problems  that  come  as  a  result  of  a 
state  of  mind  that  one  has,  as  opposed  to  very  real  illnesses  that 
may  have  been  caused  by  any  one  of  these  factors. 

The  report  is  very  illuminating.  Pages  134  and  135  take  us  to  the 
issue  of  the  question  of  the  effectiveness  of  the  drugs  and  the  long- 
term  impact  that  were  administered  to  the  veterans  in  an  attempt 
to  immunize  them  against  possible  biological  attacks.  These  drugs 
have  not  received  the  full  approval  of  the  FDA.  How  many  and  how 
often  were  these  drugs  used?  Which  of  them  were  experimental  in 
nature?  What  have  we  done  in  ascertaining  the  impact  of  the  ad- 
ministration of  these  drugs  on  our  veterans?  Have  we  made  or 


begun  to  make  the  kinds  of  studies  that  can  lead  us  to  the  informa- 
tion and  facts  necessary? 

I've  raised  this  with  the  Assistant  Secretary  just  a  few  moments 
ago.  This  has  been  the  subject  of  some  hearings  that  have  been 
held,  not  open  to  the  public,  touching  on  some  sensitive,  very  sen- 
sitive areas. 

The  Congress  is  very  much  concerned  and  the  Chairman  is  very, 
very  right.  When  the  Defense  Department  is  issuing  orders  to  peo- 
ple that  they  should  not  testify  or  should  not  appear  publicly  in 
uniform  to  make  known  their  plight,  I  believe  they're  overreaching. 
And  I  think  it  smells,  then,  of  the  kind  of  situation  which  we 
should  all  be  contemptuous  of. 

We  want  the  facts. 

I  don't  know  the  facts.  But  I  know  one  thing — it's  not  good 
enough  to  simply  try  to  dismiss  the  thousands  of  veterans  and 
their  complaints  from  themselves  and  their  families  by  saying,  it's 
a  mental  state  of  mind.  It  is  improper  to  attempt  to  turn  this 
around  and  make  people  who  are  truly  ill,  where  they  had  no  ill- 
nesses before,  and  try  to  blame  this,  in  effect,  on  that  person,  by 
making  them  feel  that  he  or  she  somehow  has  a  mental  problem, 
and  that  it's  not  real.  And  that's  exactly  what  is  taking  place. 

If  we  treat  people  with  disdain — and  that  is  what  is  happening — 
there  will  come  the  kinds  of  reactions  that  we've  seen.  I  don't  think 
we  should  loan  ourselves  to  that.  I  don't  believe  that  most  people 
are  doing  that  deliberately.  But  I  think  that  is  the  manner  in 
which  it  is  being  perceived. 

I  believe  that  the  Administration,  the  Defense  Department,  must 
show  a  greater  degree  of  sensitivity  and  has  to  devote  more  of  its 
resources  and  energies  to  getting  the  facts.  It  can't  wait  another  2 
or  3  years.  It's  something  that  we  are  entitled  to  and  it's  something 
that  we  should  be  letting  those  who  are  experiencing  these  prob- 
lems know  what  we're  doing. 

You  can  have  the  best  intentions  and  the  best  programs  in  the 
world  in  terms  of  trying  to  get  the  facts.  But  if  you're  not  letting 
the  veterans  know,  if  you're  not  letting  the  Congress  know,  if 
you're  saying,  well,  we're  working  diligently,  why,  then,  it  loses  its 
impact.  I  think  that  it  is  absolutely  imperative  that  we  get  these 
things  out  on  the  table.  It's  not  going  to  be  swept  away,  as  the 
Chairman  has  indicated. 

Let  me  conclude  by  saying  that  I  think  we  owe  the  Chairman  a 
great  debt  of  gratitude  for  his  persistence  in  pushing  forward  and 
really  trying  to  get  the  facts  and  the  information  that  those  who 
are  afflicted  are  entitled  to  and  that  the  American  people  and  pub- 
lic are  entitled  to. 

Thank  you. 

[Applause.] 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you  very  much.  Senator  D'Amato. 

Senator  Boxer. 

OPENING  STATEMENT  OF  SENATOR  BARBARA  BOXER 

Senator  BoxER.  Thank  you  very  much,  Mr.  Chairman. 
You  really  have  been  the  voice  for  our  Gulf  War  veterans,  not 
only  inside  the  U.S.  Senate,  but  in  the  country. 


8 

I've  been  here  a  short  time.  And  soon  after  I  came,  you  began 
to  talk  about  Persian  Gulf  War  Syndrome.  You  never  gave  up 
pushing  for  the  answers  and  you  never  let  this  become  a  matter 
of  statistics.  You've  always  put  a  human  face  on  it.  Some  of  those 
faces  are  out  here  today,  thanks  to  you  and  your  work. 

I  believe,  whether  from  within  or  without  the  Senate,  this  is 
something  you're  not  going  to  let  die.  When  people  say  one  person 
can't  make  a  difference,  they  never  met  Don  Riegle.  I  sincerely 
mean  it,  and  I  certainly  want  to  be  your  partner  in  this  endeavor. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you. 

Senator  Boxer.  Mr.  Chairman,  hundreds,  if  not  thousands,  of 
California  veterans  are  now  suffering  from  Gulf  War  Syndrome. 
Many  of  them  have  come  into  my  office.  They've  told  me  of  lives 
disrupted  and  families  destroyed.  Every  one  of  them  has  been  a 
heartbreaking  story. 

The  symptoms  of  this  terrible  disease  are  now  well  known:  Head- 
aches, muscle  and  joint  pain,  loss  of  memory,  shortness  of  breath, 
skin  rashes,  diarrhea,  and  an  inability  to  function. 

Mr.  Chairman,  I  had  the  honor  of  discussing  the  Gulf  War  Syn- 
drome with  a  woman  who  has  it.  I'm  not  going  to  put  her  name 
out  there  because  I  feel  that  I  need  to  protect  her.  She's  a  26-year- 
old  active-duty  Army  mechanic.  She  worked  out  on  the  line  repair- 
ing planes  in  the  Gulf  War.  She  was  sent  to  Saudi  Arabia  in  1990 
and  returned  in  May  1991. 

She  started  to  experience  terrible  symptoms  in  late  1990.  I  have 
her  medical  report.  You  can  tell  from  the  symptoms,  which  go  on 
and  on,  that  she  was  completely  debilitated.  She  experienced  daily 
fevers  of  102  degrees  every  afternoon,  dry  mouth,  bilateral 
subcoastal  stabbing  pains  of  pressure  which  would  last  for  hours, 
as  long  as  1  week,  palpitations,  chest  pain,  oral  ulcerations,  blisters 
on  the  lips,  numbness  in  the  hands,  fatigue,  severe  headaches,  and 
it  goes  on  and  on. 

Prior  to  being  shipped  to  the  Persian  Gulf,  she  was  a  100-per- 
cent, all-American,  healthy  young  woman,  with  no  history  of  any 
problems  at  all. 

She  wrote  to  me: 

On  May  1,  1991,  I  returned  from  Desert  Storm.  I  did  not  know  that  the  war  would 
start  again  3  years  later.  This  time  it  is  not  with  a  foreign  nation,  but  with  my  own 
Government.  I  do  not  want  compensation.  I  only  want  my  health  back.  Please  help 
the  sick  veterans  of  the  Gulf  War. 

When  we  send  people  to  face  death,  we  owe  them  something 
when  they  come  back.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  we  owe  them  everything 
when  they  come  back.  And  I  believe  that  if  there  is  in  fact  a  cover- 
up  going  on,  whether  it's  meant  to  be  something  to  help  our  coun- 
try, not  to  get  us  down  and  depressed,  for  whatever  reason,  there 
is  no  excuse. 

We  need  to  get  to  the  bottom  of  this  and,  Mr.  Chairman,  as  you 
point  out,  we  will.  It  took  us  a  long  time  to  find  out  about  radiation 
exposure  in  the  1940's  and  the  1950's,  but  we  found  out  about  it, 
and  the  pain  of  learning  about  the  cover-up  only  adds  to  the  agony 
of  the  original  sin. 

We've  also  learned  about  the  Agent  Orange  experience.  I  remem- 
ber struggling  in  the  House  of  Representatives  for  years  to  get  rec- 
ognition that  Agent  Orange  exposure  should  have  been  an  auto- 


matic  disability.  Don't  you  think  it's  time  we  made  the  same  kind 
of  conclusion  here?  We  don't  have  one  person  or  ten  people.  We 
have  many,  many  thousands.  They  all  have  the  same  symptoms. 

I  have  a  statement  submitted  to  us  by  Dean  Ludholm,  Jr.,  a  Gulf 
War  veteran,  who  joined  the  California  national  guard  and  very 
proudly  volunteered  for  service  in  the  Gulf  War.  I  just  want  to  close 
by  reading  his  last  paragraph: 

Nine  months  after  first  accessing  VA  medical  care,  I'm  still  being  told  to  be  pa- 
tient. This  bothers  me.  But  it  doesn't  compare  to  the  anger  I  feel  when  other  veter- 
ans and  their  families  tell  me  their  stories  of  dealing  with  the  VA  and  the  DoD. 
They  tell  me  that  these  Governmental  agencies  just  don't  care,  as  long  as  they  get 
their  research  funding.  They  tell  me  *)f  waiting  many  months  for  medical  appoint- 
ments. They  tell  me  of  quick  medical  screenings  that  do  not  look  for  evidence  of  ill- 
ness. They  tell  me  of  the  financial  hardships  this  illness  has  caused  their  families. 
For  the  last  3  years,  we've  been  more  than  patient  with  the  powers  that  be. 

You  have  the  ability  to  help  us  veterans  and  our  families. 

And  then  he  closes  and  says: 

These  are  tough  times.  We  want  nothing  more  than  to  be  self-sufficient.  You  can't 
know  the  pain  of  asking  for  food  stamps  and  handouts  from  the  communities  we 
live  in,  ana  then  being  told,  we're  looking  to  take  advantage  of  the  system.  Let  there 
be  no  peace  until  we  have  justice. 

These  are  very  strong,  emotional,  and  important  words.  Mr. 
Chairman,  the  soldier  to  whom  I  referred  earlier  is  now  at  a  pri- 
vate clinic,  courtesy  of  a  very  generous  man.  They're  trying  to  get 
to  the  bottom  of  this. 

I  hope  today  we  will  have  the  wherewithal  to  get  the  truth  out 
on  the  table  because  it  is  our  responsibility,  not  some  private  clinic, 
to  find  out  what  this  problem  is. 

Mr.  Chairman,  I  thank  you  again  for  your  leadership. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you  very  much,  Senator  Boxer.  I  appre- 
ciate what  you've  said  and  I  appreciate  your  leadership  on  this  and 
also  citing  those  stories  of  those  individuals  from  California. 

Senator  Faircloth. 

OPENING  STATEMENT  OF  SENATOR  LAUGH  FAIRCLOTH 

Senator  Faircloth.  Thank  you,  Mr.  Chairman. 

I  want  to  thank  you  for  holding  this  hearing.  It's  necessary  and 
it's  going  to  serve  an  excellent  purpose. 

In  the  wake  of  the  Gulf  War,  it  is  time  we  looked  back  to  see 
what  was  done  wrong  and  what  was  done  right.  We  can't  change 
what  was  done,  but  we  will  be  accountable  for  what  we  do  now. 

My  statement  also  gets  to  another  cover-up  of  that  conflict,  not 
as  touching  as  the  sick  veterans,  but  well  worth  a  review. 

The  Commerce  Department  has  a  lot  of  questions  to  answer 
about  its  role  leading  up  to  the  Gulf  War.  It  is  also  time  that  we 
in  the  Banking  Committee  revisit  a  current  Commerce  Department 
nominee — Lauri  Fitz-Pegado,  who  played  a  crucial  role  in  shaping 
public  opinion  toward  U.S.  involvement,  and  she  did  it  by  person- 
ally orchestrating  perjured  testimony  before  Congress. 

Mr.  Chairman,  in  1990,  after  the  Iraqi  invasion  of  their  country, 
the  Kuwaiti  government  in  exile  formed  Citizens  for  a  Free  Ku- 
wait. They  hired  the  lobbying  firm  of  Hill  and  Knowlton  to  influ- 
ence public  opinion  in  this  country  toward  entering  the  conflict. 
Lauri  Fitz-Pegado  was  in  charge  of  the  effort. 

Her  strategy  was  to  use  alleged  witnesses  to  atrocities,  to  tell 
stories  of  human  rights  violations  in  occupied  Kuwait.  Using  their 


10 

testimony,  she  orchestrated  what  has  come  to  be  known  as  the 
Baby  Incubator  Fraud. 

She  first  coached  a  15-year-old  Kuwaiti  girl,  identified  only  at 
the  time  as  Naira,  to  testify  before  Congress  that  she  had  seen 
Iraqi  soldiers  remove  Kuwaiti  babies  from  hospital  respirators. 
Naira  claimed  to  be  a  refugee  who  had  been  working  as  a  volunteer 
in  a  Kuwaiti  hospital  throughout  the  first  few  weeks  of  the  Iraqi 
occupation.  She  said  that  she  had  seen  them  take  babies  out  of  the 
incubators,  take  the  incubators,  and  leave  the  babies  "on  the  cold 
floor  to  die." 

Naira's  emotional  testimony  riveted  human  rights  organizations, 
the  news  mediums,  and  the  Nation.  That  incident  was  cited  by  six 
Members  of  the  U.S.  Senate  as  reasons  to  go  to  war  with  Iraq. 

However,  it  was  later  discovered  that  the  girl  was  in  fact  the 
daughter  of  the  Kuwaiti  ambassador  to  the  United  States.  It  turns 
out  that  Lauri  Fitz-Pegado  had  concealed  Naira's  real  identity. 
Since  then,  reputable  human  rights  organizations  and  journalists 
have  concluded  that  the  baby  incubator  story  was  an  outright  fab- 
rication. Every  study  commissioned  by  the  Kuwaiti  government 
could  not  produce  a  shred  of  evidence  that  the  ambassador's  daugh- 
ter had  been  back  in  occupied  Kuwait  to  do  volunteer  work  in  a 
hospital.  It  was  a  total  fabrication. 

Lauri  Fitz-Pegado  then  put  on  a  repeat  performance  in  front  of 
the  U.S.  Security  Council  on  November  27,  1990.  In  the  testimony 
before  Congress,  they  claimed  they  couldn't  fully  identify  who  the 
witness  was  because  thev  wanted  to  protect  her  family  that  sup- 
posedly was  still  trapped,  in  Kuwait.  But,  in  fact,  they  were  here 
on  Embassy  Row. 

In  front  of  the  United  Nations,  Lauri  Fitz-Pegado  abandoned 
that  pretense  and  instead  employed  witnesses  who  testified  using 
false  names  and  occupations.  The  most  important  of  these  phony 
witnesses  was  a  man  who  called  himself  Dr.  Ebrahim.  With  Lauri 
Fitz-Pegado  there  in  New  York,  he  claimed  to  have  personally  bur- 
ied 40  babies  pulled  from  incubators  by  the  Iraqis.  Dr.  Ebrahim 
told  the  Security  Council  that  he  was  a  surgeon.  But  after  the  war, 
when  the  scam  was  exposed  as  a  total  fraud,  he  admitted  to  being 
a  dentist  and  had  never  buried  any  babies  or  seen  any.  More  lies. 

The  Fitz-Pegado  scam  continues.  Mr.  Chairman,  as  a  supporter 
of  our  country  s  involvement  in  the  Gulf  War,  I  am  offended  that 
Lauri  Fitz-Pegado  believes  that  those  kinds  of  illegal  and  unethical 
activities  were  necessary  to  get  this  country  to  face  the  threat  of 
Saddam  Hussein.  None  of  these  facts  and  allegations  were  dis- 
closed to  either  you,  Mr.  Chairman,  or  other  Members  of  the  Bank- 
ing Committee  when  her  nomination  was  voted  on  here. 

If  confirmed,  Lauri  Fitz-Pegado  would  have  control  over  a  global 
network  of  200  trade  offices  in  70  countries.  My  opposition  is  based 
not  on  party  or  ideology.  It  is  based  on  the  fact  that  there  are  few 
people  in  America  who  have  less  business  being  in  charge  of  our 
Nation's  trade  secrets  than  Lauri  Fitz-Pegado. 

Lauri  Fitz-Pegado's  nomination  should  be  returned  to  the  Bank- 
ing Committee  for  further  review.  If  it  is  not,  then  facts  that  are 
far  more  embarrassing  to  Ms.  Fitz-Pegado  and  to  others  in  Govern- 
ment will  be  revealed  in  other  speeches  and  in  long,  protracted  de- 
bate on  the  Senate  floor. 


11 

Mr.  Chairman,  the  Banking  Committee  was  hoodwinked  by  a 
professional  scam  artist.  Lauri  Fitz-Pegado  should  be  asked  to  dis- 
close her  entire  past  and  then  be  prepared  to  defend  what  I  believe 
is  a  totally  indefensible  past. 

I  thank  you,  Mr.  Chairman. 

Senator  D'Amato.  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  Senator  D'Amato. 

Senator  D'Amato.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  urge  the  Chairman  to 
consider  the  Senator  from  North  Carolina,  Senator  Faircloth's  re- 
quest. 

I  know  that  he  does  not  make  this  request  in  anything  other 
than  the  spirit  of  honesty  and  fair  play  and  not  in  partisanship.  I 
know  he  feels  deeply  about  this  matter.  He  has  conferred  with  me 
about  it,  Mr.  Chairman,  and  I  know  the  Senator  and  his  staff  will 
make  available  to  you  and  your  staff  an  outline  of  those  matters 
that  he  has  withheld  and  has  not  gone  forward  on,  and  that  you 
might  then  reconsider  this  request. 

I'd  urge  you  to  consider  that.  I  think  in  fairness  to  everyone,  that 
might  be  the  best  course  of  action,  to  ask  that  this  be  sent  back 
to  the  Committee  for  further  consideration.  I  join  in  the  request. 
I  did  not  oppose  the  nominee,  but  I  am  very  much  concerned  at  this 
point  in  time  before  we  go  further. 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  take  this  request  and  the  suggestion 
under  advisement.  Senator  Faircloth  and  I  have  not  discussed  this 
previously,  and  so  this  is  an  issue  that  we  do  need  to  discuss  per- 
sonally beyond  what's  been  said  here  now.  I  will  plan  to  do  that 
with  you.  Then  we'll  see  where  we  go  from  there. 

Senator  Faircloth.  Thank  you,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you.  I  want  to  note  that  Senator  Night- 
horse  Campbell  was  here  and  may  be  able  to  return.  He  had  an- 
other situation. 

He's  been  a  very  important  voice  on  this  issue  in  the  Veterans' 
Affairs  Committee  as  well,  and  feels  very  strongly  about  this  issue. 
In  any  event,  he's  next  in  the  order  and  I  will  recognize  him  at  any 
point  at  which  he  returns. 

Senator  Bond. 

OPENING  STATEMENT  OF  SENATOR  CHRISTOPHER  S.  BOND 

Senator  Bond.  Thank  you  very  much,  Mr.  Chairman.  I  thank 
you  for  calling  this  important  hearing  to  investigate  the  causes  of 
the  Persian  Gulf  War  Syndrome  because  many  U.S.  veterans  and 
their  families  are  currently  suffering. 

I  think  we  owe  it  to  our  veterans  to  do  everything  we  can  to  de- 
termine the  causes  of  the  Gulf  War  Syndrome,  to  develop  and  re- 
search cures  for  these  veterans  who  are  affected,  and  to  do  what- 
ever we  can  to  better  prepare  and  protect  our  service  personnel 
from  illnesses  associated  with  this  syndrome  in  any  future  con- 
flicts. 

Mr.  Chairman,  I  have  a  lengthy  statement.  I  am  just  going  to 
highlight  a  couple  of  items  on  it  because.  No.  1,  I  have  another 
commitment  at  11  a.m.,  and.  No.  2,  I  think  it  might  be  well  if  we 
could  get  to  our  witnesses  before  noon. 

The  Chairman.  Yes,  indeed. 


12 

Senator  Bond.  So  I  will  just  summarize  to  sav  that  we  have 
thousands  of  American  servicemen  and  women  who  are  suffering 
from  symptoms  and  undiagnosable  disorders.  It  is  consistent  with 
exposure  to  biological  or  chemical  toxins. 

I  think,  collectively,  the  facts  make  it  at  least  possible  that  these 
Gulf  War  veterans  were  exposed  to  chemical  and/or  biological  tox- 
ins, and  I  support  Public  Law  103-210,  which  provides  additional 
authority  for  the  Secretary  of  Veterans'  Affairs  to  provide  priority 
health  care  to  the  veterans  of  the  Persian  Gulf  War  who  have  been 
exposed  to  these  toxic  substances,  environmental  hazards,  or  what- 
ever caused  this  syndrome. 

I  think  we  have  a  duty,  not  only  to  these  veterans,  but  to  others, 
to  investigate  fully  whether  or  not  chemicals  or  biologicals  were 
used  on  the  troops  and  what  caused  the  problems  that  they  are 
now  encountering. 

I  do  have  some  real  concerns.  First,  I  find  it  disturbing  that  the 
Department  of  Defense  has  not  been  as  forthcoming  on  this  issue 
as  I  feel  they  must.  It's  been  almost  2V2  years  since  the  Gulf  War 
and  it  does  not  appear  to  have  been  a  Defense  Department  priority 
to  get  to  the  bottom  of  the  causes  of  Gulf  War  Syndrome.  It  may 
or  may  not  be  a  result  of  chemical  or  biological  warfare.  But  the 
odds  of  this  syndrome  affecting  future  units  in  combat  is  grave 
enough  to  warrant  full  and  speedy  investigation. 

Second,  it  would  appear  that  a  thorough  re-evaluation  of  our  de- 
fenses against  biological  and  chemical  warfare  is  in  order. 

Finally,  I  am  concerned  about  the  possibility  that  these  adverse 
effects  on  the  veterans  could  have  come  from  the  administration  of 
the  nerve  agent  pretreatment  drugs  and  inoculations  distributed  to 
our  Armed  Forces.  A  research  specialist  has  commented  that  the 
drug  was  unproven.  And  I  really  think  we  have  to  do  more  re- 
search on  the  side  effects  of  this  drug  and  the  advisability  of  ad- 
ministering it  to  our  troops.  No.  1,  could  it  have  caused  some  of  the 
problems?  No.  2,  was  it  effective?  What  are  its  risks?  I  think  these 
open  up  a  tremendous  number  of  questions  that  should  be  ad- 
dressed. 

Mr.  Chairman,  I  would  like  to  have  my  full  statement  made  a 
part  of  the  record. 

The  Chairman.  Without  objection,  the  full  statement  will  be 
made  a  part  of  the  record.  I  appreciate  your  summary  comments 
very  much. 

Senator  Bennett. 

OPENING  STATEMENT  OF  SENATOR  ROBERT  F.  BENNETT 

Senator  Bennett.  Thank  you,  Mr.  Chairman. 

I  will  be  brief,  as  I,  too,  want  to  hear  from  the  witnesses.  But 
I  want  to  underline  several  themes  that  have  been  made  here. 

First,  with  respect  to  the  responsibility  of  the  Government  not  to 
lie  to  its  citizens. 

I  come  from  a  State  where  we  have  a  group  of  people  called  the 
Downwinders,  people  who  lived  in  the  1950's  downwind  from  the 
atmospheric  tests  of  nuclear  weapons  that  took  place  in  Nevada. 
The  Downwinders  were  told  that  they  should  go  out  and  look  at  the 
clouds  as  they  went  by  because  it  would  be  a  great  experience  that 
they  could  describe  to  their  children.  Then  they  were  told  that  the 


13 

cancer  rates  that  occurred  in  southern  Utah  as  a  result  of  people 
who  were  exposed  to  that  radiation  and  fallout  were  somehow  just 
coincidental.  The  Government  clearly  lied  to  its  citizens  in  that  cir- 
cumstance. 

So  it  goes  back,  as  you  say,  through  a  lot  of  Presidents  and  a  lot 
of  Administrations  and  a  lot  of  parties.  One  of  my  heroes,  Dwight 
Eisenhower,  was  President  when  that  was  being  done.  In  the  name 
of  national  security,  we  lied  to  our  citizens.  We  exposed  them  to 
health  risks  and  then  we  tried  to  cover  up  after  the  fact. 

More  to  the  point,  recently,  I  toured  the  military  installation  at 
Dougway,  Utah.  Some  people  may  not  know  about  Dougway,  Utah. 
It  is  the  prime  storage  facility  for  nerve  gas  and  other  chemical  and 
biological  weapons  in  the  United  States,  and  for  many  years 
Dougway  was  the  place  where  the  testing  of  the  efficacy  of  these 
weapons  went  on. 

Dougway  is  now  entirely  defensive,  appropriately.  We  do  not  do 
any  production  or  testing  of  potential  American  weapons  in  this  re- 
gard, but  we  do  a  great  deal  of  testing  of  ways  to  prevent  and  de- 
fend ourselves  against  attacks  from  other  countries. 

The  military  is  cutting  back  on  its  activities  in  Dougway,  saying 
that  these  defensive  kinds  of  tests  are  not  needed  anymore.  I'm  not 
here  to  debate  the  military  budget  on  that  issue.  But  I  think  as  we 
raise  these  questions,  we  should  very  carefully  revisit  the  decision 
to  cut  back  on  America's  capability  to  develop  defenses  against  this 
kind  of  thing.  Having  been  so  recently  at  the  site  where  this  capa- 
bility is  going  on,  I  think  it — well,  it  comes  very  firmly  to  my  own 
approach  to  this  to  say,  maybe  we're  too  hasty  in  cutting  back  some 
of  that  defensive  activity. 

But,  ultimately,  the  thing  that  will  bring  the  greatest  anger  as 
far  as  the  Junior  Senator  from  Utah  is  concerned  is  the  issue  that 
the  Chairman  has  raised,  in  another  context,  the  Senator  from 
North  Carolina  has  raised,  and  that  is  the  issue  of  lying  to  Con- 
gress. I  think  it's  indefensible  to  consider  that  any  member  of  any 
Administration,  in  an  attempt  to  cover  up  an  agency  position — and 
by  agency,  I  include  Cabinet-level  officers — would  come  before  the 
Congress  and  attempt  to  mislead  the  Congress. 

I  associate  myself  entirely  with  the  Chairman's  promise — and  I 
think  it  is  a  promise,  not  a  threat — to  pursue  any  witness  who  at- 
tempts to  mislead  the  Congress  in  an  effort  to  protect  the  reputa- 
tion of  his  or  her  agency.  I  think  that  applies  to  the  issues  raised, 
as  I  say,  by  the  Senator  from  North  Carolina.  But  it  certainly  ap- 
plies to  the  issues  here. 

If,  as  a  result  of  activity  on  the  part  of  our  enemies  in  the  Gulf 
War,  we  are  sustaining  belated  casualties,  we  need  to  know  about 
it,  and  we  need  to  know  as  quickly  and  as  openly  and  as  completely 
as  we  can  about  it.  And  there  is  no  better  constitutional  vehicle  to 
find  out  this  truth  than  the  Congress  of  the  United  States. 

I  hope  those  who  represent  the  Executive  Branch  understand 
their  constitutional  responsibility,  taken  at  the  time  they  raised 
their  hands  and  took  an  oath  to  uphold  and  defend  the  Constitu- 
tion, that  that  includes  being  honest  and  open  and  straightforward 
with  the  Congress  and  its  constitutionally  elected  officers. 

Thank  you,  Mr.  Chairman. 


14 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you  very  much,  Senator  Bennett.  I  appre- 
ciate your  comments  very  much. 

Let  me  indicate  our  first  panel  of  witnesses  today  includes  Edwin 
Dom,  who  is  the  Under  Secretary  of  Defense  for  Personnel  and 
Readiness.  He  is  accompanied  by  Dr.  Theodore  Prociv — am  I  pro- 
nouncing that  correctly? 

Dr.  Prociv.  It's  "pro-siv,"  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  Prociv — the  Deputy  Assistant  to  the  Secretary  of 
Defense  for  Chemical  and  Biological  Weapons;  and  by  Dr.  John 
Kriese,  who  is  the  Chief  Officer  for  Ground  Forces  at  the  Defense 
Intelligence  Agency. 

I  want  to  welcome  you  all.  Let  me  ask  you  to  please  stand  and 
raise  your  right  hand.  Do  you  swear  or  affirm  that  the  testimony 
you're  about  to  give  is  the  truth,  the  whole  truth,  and  nothing  but 
the  truth,  so  help  you  God? 

Mr.  DORN.  I  do. 

Dr.  Prociv.  I  do. 

Dr.  Kriese.  I  do. 

The  Chairman.  Very  good.  Thank  you. 

We  have  your  prepared  statement,  Mr.  Dorn,  and  I'd  like  you  to 
take  whatever  time  you  need  to  set  forth  your  understanding  of 
this  situation  and  the  statement  that  you  want  to  make  to  us  this 
morning. 

OPENING  STATEMENT  OF  EDWDsT  DORN,  UNDER  SECRETARY 
OF  DEFENSE  FOR  PERSONNEL  AND  READINESS,  U.S.  DE- 
PARTMENT OF  DEFENSE,  WASHINGTON,  DC;  ACCOMPANIED 
BY:  DR.  THEODORE  M.  PROCIV,  DEPUTY  ASSISTANT  TO 
THE  SECRETARY  OF  DEFENSE  FOR  CHEMICAL  AND  BIO- 
LOGICAL WEAPONS,  U.S.  DEPARTMENT  OF  DEFENSE,  WASH- 
INGTON, DC;  AND  DR.  JOHN  KRIESE,  CHIEF  OFFICER  FOR 
GROUND  FORCES,  DEFENSE  INTELLIGENCE  AGENCY,  WASH- 
INGTON, DC 

Mr.  Dorn.  Thank  you,  Mr.  Chairman  and  Members  of  the  Com- 
mittee. 

Mr.  Chairman,  in  your  opening  statement,  you  used  three  key 
words — honor,  integrity,  responsibility.  Those  are  words  that  I  take 
very  seriously  and  I  hope,  in  that  mshion,  to  work  with  you — in 
fact,  to  work  with  other  Members  of  this  body — to  ensure  that  we 
do  the  right  thing  in  this  instance. 

I'm  pleased  to  provide  information  to  support  the  Committee's  re- 
view of  how  materials  contributing  to  Iraq's  chemical  and  biological 
warfare  program  were  exported  to  Iraq  from  the  United  States. 
These  are  significant  issues  as  you  consider  measures  to  strength 
the  Export  Administration  Act. 

Secretary  Perry  has  asked  me  to  be  the  focal  point  within  the 
Defense  Department  for  issues  related  to  service  in  the  Persian 
Gulf  during  Operations  Desert  Shield  and  Desert  Storm.  I'm  here 
today  in  that  capacity. 

Senator,  you  and  other  Members  of  this  Committee  have  made 
very  clear  your  concern  about  the  health  problems  that  some  of  our 
Persian  Gulf  veterans  have  developed. -We,  in  the  Department  of 
Defense,  share  that  concern. 


15 

In  recent  weeks,  we've  testified  before  the  Armed  Services  Com- 
mittees and  the  Veterans'  Affairs  Committees  of  both  Houses.  I'll 
be  pleased  to  share  with  you  the  same  information  we  shared  with 
them. 

Indeed,  before  we  move  on  to  discuss  matters  related  to  the  Ex- 
port Administration  Act,  I'd  like  to  offer  a  few  points  about  our  ef- 
forts on  behalf  of  Persian  Gulf  veterans.  May  I  begin,  Senator,  with 
a  memorandum  to  Persian  Gulf  veterans,  recently  co-signed  by  Sec- 
retary Perry  and  by  the  Chairman  of  the  Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff. 

With  your  indulgence,  Senator,  I  would  like  to  read  this  into  the 
record: 

As  you  may  know,  there  have  been  reports  that  some  Persian  Gulf  veterans  are 
experiencing  health  problems  that  may  be  related  to  their  service  in  the  Gulf.  We 
want  to  assure  each  of  you  that  your  health  and  well-being  are  top  priorities  for 
the  Department  of  Defense. 

There  are  many  hazards  of  war,  ranging  from  intense  combat  to  environmental 
exposures.  Anyone  who  has  health  problems  resulting  from  those  hazards  is  entitled 
to  health  care. 

If  you 

And  keep  in  mind,  Mr.  Chairman,  this  is  being  sent  to  Persian 
Gulf  War  veterans: 

If  you  are  experiencing  problems,  please  come  in  for  medical  evaluation.  Active- 
duty  personnel  and  their  eligible  family  members  should  report  to  any  military  hos- 
pital and  ask  to  be  included  in  the  Department's  Persian  Gulf  War  Health  Surveil- 
lance System. 

You  will  receive  a  full  medical  evaluation  and  any  medical  care  that  you  need. 
Reserve  personnel  may  contact  either  a  military  hospital  or  their  nearest  Veterans' 
AfTairs  medical  center  and  ask  to  be  included  in  the  DoD  Surveillance  System  or 
the  VA's  Persian  Gulf  Health  Registry. 

You  will  receive  a  full  medical  examination.  Depending  on  the  results  of  the  eval- 
uation and  eligibility  status,  reserve  personnel  will  receive  medical  care  either  from 
military  facilities  or  from  VA  facilities. 

This  memo  goes  on,  Mr.  Chairman. 

There  have  been  reports  in  the  press  of  the  possibility  that  some  of  you  were  ex- 
posed to  chemical  or  biological  weapons  agents.  There  is  no  information,  classified 
or  unclassified,  that  indicates  that  chemical  or  biological  weapons  were  used  in  the 
Persian  Gulf.  There  also  have  been  reports  that  some  veterans  believe  there  are  re- 
strictions on  what  they  can  say  about  potential  exposures. 

Please  be  assured  that  you  should  not  feel  constrained  in  any  way  from  discussing 
these  issues.  We  are  indebted  to  each  one  of  you  for  your  service  to  your  country 
during  the  Persian  Gulf  War  and  throughout  your  military  careers.  We  also  want 
to  be  sure  that  you  receive  any  medical  care  you  need. 

Thank  you  for  your  service. 

Signed,  John  M.  Shalikashvili,  Chairman  of  the  Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff,  and  William 
J.  Perry,  Secretary  of  Defense. 

Mr.  Chairman,  we  take  the  position  that  the  veterans  who  are 
sick  should  receive  the  best  care  we  can  provide.  Three  years  ago, 
we  trusted  these  men  and  women  to  make  life  and  death  decisions 
in  the  heat  of  battle.  Today,  we  should  trust  them  if  they  say 
they're  sick.  We're  committed  to  treating  the  symptoms,  to  fashion- 
ing appropriate  compensation  for  those  who  are  disabled,  and  to 
identifying  the  causes  of  their  illnesses. 

An  interagency  coordinating  board  ensures  that  the  Defense  De- 
partment's treatment  and  research  programs  complement  related 
efforts  by  the  Department  of  Veterans'  Aifairs  and  the  Department 
of  Health  and  Human  Services, 

I  should  note  here,  Mr.  Chairman,  that  Congress  aided  our  abil- 
ity to  respond  last  fall  by  authorizing  the  Veterans'  Administration 


16 

to  provide  priority  care  to  Persian  Gulf  veterans  for  conditions  that 
might  be  related  to  their  Gulf  service. 

We're  especially  concerned  about  those  Desert  Shield/Desert 
Storm  veterans  who  since  the  war  have  developed  symptoms  whose 
causes  we  cannot  identify.  These  veterans  represent  a  small  por- 
tion of  the  nearly  700,000  U.S.  military  personnel  who  served  in 
the  Persian  Gulf  region  during  the  conflict  and,  indeed,  they  rep- 
resent a  small  portion  of  those  who  have  been  treated  for  illnesses 
or  injuries  suffered  during  the  war. 

DoD  and  VA  doctors  have  treated  thousands  of  Persian  Gulf  vet- 
erans for  readily  identifiable  illnesses  and  injuries.  We  know  of  a 
few  thousand  people,  however,  for  whom  a  clear  diagnosis  contin- 
ues to  elude  physicians,  and  this  is  the  group  that  we  consider  to 
be  experiencing  the  Persian  Gulf  Syndrome  or  the  mystery  illness. 

We're  working  very  hard  on  this.  There  are  lots  of  theories  about 
causes.  We've  heard  from  people  who  are  convinced  that  we'll  find 
the  answer  if  we  only  focus  solely  on  parasitic  diseases,  or  focus 
solely  on  the  effects  of  Kuwaiti  oil  smoke,  or  on  industrial  pollut- 
ants, or  on  the  effects  of  inoculations,  or  solely  on  stress,  or  on  mul- 
tiple chemical  sensitivity.  What  we  are  trying  to  do  is  maintain  a 
program  that  explores  all  the  possibilities. 

In  the  course  of  our  work,  of  course,  some  possibilities  begin  to 
appear  less  plausible  than  others.  One  theory  involves  Iraq's  chem- 
ical and  biological  warfare  capability.  It's  that  theory  which  pro- 
vides a  connection  between  the  health  problems  of  Persian  Gulf 
War  veterans  and  the  Senate  Banking  Committee's  review  of  the 
Export  Administration  Act. 

At  the  time  of  its  invasion  of  Kuwait  in  August  1990,  Iraq  clearly 
represented  a  case  in  which  past  efforts  to  prevent  the  proliferation 
of  weapons  of  mass  destruction  had  not  been  effective. 

Many  American  policymakers  and  military  commanders  were 
greatly  concerned  going  into  that  war  that  Iraq  would  use  chemical 
and/or  biological  weapons.  They  knew  they  had  used  chemical 
weapons  in  the  past  and  we  had  evidence  that  they  had  acquired 
a  biological  warfare  capability  as  well.  Our  concerns  led  us  to  take 
measures  to  protect  our  personnel  against  such  weapons,  through 
immunizations,  through  special  training,  equipment,  and  detection. 

The  tension  surrounding  the  possible  use  of  chemical  or  biologi- 
cal weapons  was  evident  to  every  American  who  watched  on  tele- 
vision as  journalists  scrambled  to  put  on  protective  masks  in  re- 
sponse to  the  SCUD  attack  warning  sirens  in  downtown  Riyadh 
and  other  areas.  There  were  many  such  alarms  witnessed  by  Unit- 
ed States  and  other  coalition  military  personnel  and  by  the  civilian 
populations  of  Saudi  Arabia,  Kuwait,  and  Israel. 

Following  the  war,  we  confirmed  through  inspections  conducted 
by  the  United  Nations  Special  Commission  that  Iraq  did  have  sig- 
nificant stocks  of  chemical  agents  and  the  weapons  systems  to  de- 
liver them,  as  well  as  equipment  and  material  suited  for  chemical 
agent  production. 

All  of  these  chemical  agents  and  related  equipment  were  found 
stored  at  locations  a  great  distance  from  the  Kuwait  theater  of  op- 
erations. These  materials  have  been  undergoing  destruction  at  a 
centralized  location  in  Iraq  under  the  supervision  of  the  United  Na- 
tions Special  Commission  since  late  1992. 


17 

United  States  military  personnel  have  been  present  on  site  in 
Iraq  and  involved  in  each  of  the  teams  overseeing  these  destruction 
operations.  We've  concluded  that  Iraq  did  not  use  chemical  or  bio- 
logical weapons  during  the  war.  This  conclusion  is  based  on  analy- 
sis of  large  amounts  of  detailed  data  gathered  in  the  theater  and 
reviewed  after  the  war. 

First,  throughout  the  operation,  there  was  only  one  instance  of 
a  soldier  who  was  treated  for  chemical  bums  that  were  initially  at- 
tributed to  mustard  agent.  A  subsequent  test  on  the  soldier  and  his 
clothing,  however,  did  not  definitely  support  that  finding.  We  know 
of  no  other  reports  of  any  U.S.  military,  coalition  military,  or  civil- 
ians in  the  region  having  symptoms  caused  by  exposure  to  chemical 
or  biological  warfare  agents. 

Mr.  Chairman,  the  effects  of  chemical  and  biological  weapons  are 
acute  and  readily  identifiable,  and  our  personnel  nad  been  trained 
to  look  for  them.  The  effects  of  exposure  on  unprotected  people  are 
painful,  debilitating,  and  often  deadly.  We  did  not  see  those  effects 
in  the  Gulf. 

Second,  our  detectors  were  strategically  located  and,  although 
many  detectors  alarmed,  there  were  no  confirmed  detections  of  any 
chemical  or  biological  agents  at  any  time  during  the  conflict. 

Third 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  just  stop  you  there  for  a  moment. 

Did  we  have  in  the  field  machinery  or  monitoring  equipment  to 
pick  up  biological  agents? 

Mr.  DORN.  I  will  turn  to  my  colleague.  Dr.  Kriese,  to  answer 
that.  We  can  do  it  now  or  following  the  statement. 

The  Chairman.  Can  you  give  me  a  yes  or  no  now?  I  don't  want 
to  interrupt  the  rest  of  your  presentation. 

Dr.  Kriese.  Let  me  just  briefly  say,  sir,  that  there's  a  difference 
between  detectors  and  timely  detectors.  We  did  not  have  real-time 
detectors  present,  but  we  did  have  detectors 

The  Chairman.  On  biological  weapons? 

Dr.  Kriese.  Yes,  sir,  that  sampled  the  air  and  looked  for  traces 
of  biological 

The  Chairman.  So  to  say  that  there  was  no  confirmed  detection 
of  biological  agents,  when  in  fact  we  didn't  have  real-time  devices 
there  to  measure  that,  is  a  little  misleading,  wouldn't  you  say? 

Dr.  Kriese.  Sir,  I  would  offer  that,  as  we're  sampling  air  on  a 
continuing  basis,  we  would  know  about  any  BW  agents  shortly 
after  they  entered  the  area. 

The  Chairman.  Even  without  monitoring  devices? 

Dr.  Kreese.  The  monitoring  devices  take  awhile  to  give  an  an- 
swer. 

The  Chairman.  Two  years?  Three  years? 

Dr.  Kriese.  Dr.  Prociv? 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  go  ahead  and  let  you  finish,  Mr.  Dorn. 
We'll  come  back  to  that. 

Dr.  Prociv.  Let  me  just  add,  the  collection  and  analysis  devices, 
particularly  the  BIDS,  the  Biological  Identification  Systems,  take 
generally  in  the  range  of  1  to  2  hours  to  complete  their  scheme.  But 
once  they  do,  they  identify  the  species  quite  readily.  We  had  no 
positives  in  that  detection  system. 

The  Chairman.  We'll  come  back  to  that. 


18 

Senator  Bennett.  Would  the  Chairman  yield? 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Senator  Bennett.  I  also  don't  want  to  interrupt,  but  I  would 
hope,  when  you  say,  we  have  no  such  indication,  you  would  address 
the  reports  of  the  Czech 

Mr.  DORN.  I  certainly  will. 

Senator  Bennett.  OK,  Thank  you. 

Mr.  DoRN.  I  also  want  to  emphasize  the  word,  confirmed.  As  you 
know,  there  were  lots  of  reports  of  detections.  There  is  a  protocol, 
however,  a  procedure  which  these  gentlemen  can  describe  in  great- 
er detail,  that  we  use  to  confirm  whether  an  initial  alarm  or  detec- 
tion is  a  valid  one. 

If  I  may  go  on. 

Third,  no  chemical  or  biological  weapons  were  found  in  the  Ku- 
wait theater  of  operations.  And  by  Kuwait  theater  of  operations,  I 
mean  those  portions  of  southern  Iraq  and  Kuwait  that  constituted 
the  battlefield.  We  did  not  find  any  chemical  or  biological  muni- 
tions, live  or  spent,  among  the  thousands  of  tons  of  munitions  re- 
covered on  the  battlefield. 

The  international  community  agrees  with  these  conclusions.  This 
is  a  complicated  and  contentious  issue,  however.  To  ensure  that 
we've  not  overlooked  or  misinterpreted  important  information, 
we've  asked  an  independent  panel  of  experts,  chaired  by  Nobel 
Laureate  Joshua  Lederberg,  to  review  all  the  available  evidence. 
We  expect  to  receive  the  panel's  report  in  June. 

We  also  remain  eager  to  hear  from  Gulf  War  veterans  who  feel 
they  can  shed  light  on  the  sources  of  the  undiagnosed  illnesses. 

Mr.  Chairman,  may  I  say  to  Colonel  Smith  and  to  other  veterans 
who  served  courageously  in  the  Persian  Gulf,  the  following:  I  un- 
derstand the  fear  and  the  frustration  that  many  veterans  are  expe- 
riencing. They're  sick  and  their  doctors  can't  offer  them  definitive 
answers.  To  them,  let  me  say,  this  Administration  is  committed  to 
treating  you  fairly.  You  stood  up  for  the  Nation.  The  Nation  is 
going  to  stand  up  for  you. 

Now  let  me  turn  to  the  Defense  Department's  role  in  the  export 
licensing  process. 

First,  it  should  be  noted  that  DoD  is  not  a  licensing  agency.  That 
responsibility  falls  on  the  Department  of  Commerce  for  dual-use 
items.  The  Department  of  Defense,  however,  reviews  and  provides 
recommendations  on  export  license  applications  when  they're  re- 
ferred to  Defense,  or  to  inter-agency  groups  in  which  Defense  par- 
ticipates. 

Records  on  the  ultimate  disposition  of  dual-use  biological,  chemi- 
cal, nuclear,  or  missile  technology-related  licenses  reside  in  the 
Commerce  Department. 

DoD  is  a  member  of  the  inter-agency  Subgroup  on  Nuclear  Ex- 
port Controls,  which  was  in  operation  throughout  the  1980's.  This 
group  reviews  export  requests  for  nuclear-related  dual-use  tech- 
nology. 

In  the  missile  area.  Defense  played  a  significant  role  in  the  es- 
tablishment of  the  missile  technology  control  regime  in  1987,  and 
subsequently  helped  set  up  an  interagency  license  review  group  in 
1990. 


19 

In  the  chemical  and  biological  area,  Defense  also  plays  an  impor- 
tant role  as  part  of  an  inter-agency  team  in  reviewing  export  li- 
cense requests  for  items  controlled  by  the  Australia  Group. 

The  Department  has  taken,  and  will  continue  to  take,  its  respon- 
sibility here  very  seriously.  For  example,  DoD  made  an  important 
contribution  in  halting  export  of  the  Argentine  Condor  Program 
that  was  aiding  Iraq's  weapons  of  mass  destruction  program.  And 
we  spearheaded  the  effort  to  prevent  Iraq  from  acquiring  a  more 
capable  missile  than  the  SCUD. 

Defense  also  played  a  leading  role  in  developing  the  President's 
Enhanced  Proliferation  Control  Initiative  and  most  recently,  the 
Comprehensive  DoD  Counterproliferation  Initiative.  The  Depart- 
ment of  Defense  continues  to  consider  proliferation  as  a  significant 
military  threat. 

The  growing  ability  to  produce  and  use  chemical  weapons  is  a 
great  concern  to  DoD.  We  fully  support  any  measures  that  will  pre- 
vent or  control  this  proliferation,  which  includes  strengthening  the 
Export  Administration  Act. 

It  is  important  to  remember  that  all  exports  made  to  Iraq  in  the 
1980's  were  completely  consistent  with  the  laws  in  effect  at  that 
time,  and  Iraq  was  not  considered  a  hostile  country.  Defense's  role 
in  reviewing  exports  was  greatly  expanded  in  1991,  and  would  be 
further  expanded  through  measures  you  were  considering  in  this 
Committee. 

I  would  now  like  to  introduce  other  members  of  the  panel,  if  I 
may.  Dr.  Theodore  Prociv  is  the  Deputy  Assistant  to  the  Secretary 
of  Defense  for  Chemical  and  Biological  Weapons.  In  that  role,  he 
oversees  the  Department's  chemical  and  biological  defense  pro- 
gram, the  Army  program  to  destroy  the  U.S.  stockpile  of  chemical 
weapons,  and  the  implementation  of  bilateral  and  multilateral 
chemical  weapons  treaties,  including  the  chemical  weapons  conven- 
tion, which  is  being  considered  currently  by  the  Senate  for  ratifica- 
tion. 

Additionally,  his  office  has  assisted  the  Defense  Science  Board 
Task  Force  on  Gulf  War  health  effects,  which  is  examining  the 
issue  of  Gulf  War  health,  and  has  assisted  my  staff  with  technical 
support  in  the  area  of  chemical  and  biological  warfare  defense. 

My  other  associate  is  Dr.  John  Kriese,  who  is  Chief  Officer  for 
Ground  Forces  at  the  Defense  Intelligence  Agency.  He  is  respon- 
sible for  production  of  intelligence  on  foreign  ground  forces  and  as- 
sociated weapons  systems  worldwide,  and  all  aspects  of  foreign  nu- 
clear and  chemical  programs. 

Dr.  Prociv  and  Dr.  Kriese  are  here  with  me  this  morning.  Dr. 
Mitchell  Wallerstein,  who  will  testify  this  afternoon,  is  an  expert 
in  counterproliferation  and  export  control  for  the  Under  Secretary 
of  Defense  for  Policy  in  International  Security. 

Mr.  Chairman,  that  concludes  my  opening  statement.  But  before 
we  turn  to  questions,  I  wonder  if  I  might  beg  your  indulgence  so 
that  Dr.  Prociv  and  Dr.  Kriese  might  say  a  few  words. 

The  Chairman.  Yes,  I  want  them  to  do  so,  but  I  want  to  know 
whether  they  can  give  an  assurance  here,  based  on  their  expertise 
and  credentials,  that  there  are  no  Desert  Storm  veterans  that  were 
exposed  to  chemical  or  biological  agents  during  the  war  period  that 
now  account  for  their  illnesses. 


20 

Mr.  DoRN.  Mr.  Chairman,  they  will  not  provide  you  that  assur- 
ance because  we  cannot  provide  that  assurance  at  this  point. 

The  Chairman.  All  right.  That  puts  you  on  the  record  and  I'm 
glad  to  have  you  on  the  record  stating  the  fact  that  you  can't  give 
that  assurance.  I  want  them  to  make  a  direct  professional  comment 
on  that  question  before  I  go  any  further. 

Mr.  DORN.  May  I  clarify  further? 

This  is  a  very  contentious  area.  It  is  very  easy  to  confuse  use  of 
chemical  agents  with  presence  of  chemical  agents  and  exposure. 

I  want  to  distinguish  between  Iraq's  use  of  chemical  or  biological 
agents,  a  matter  on  which  we  are  quite  confident,  and  a  second 
question,  which  is  whether  or  not  there  may  have  been  chemical 
agents  present  at  a  very  low  level  within  the  theater  of  operations. 
And  on  that  latter  matter  there  continues  to  be  some  concern. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  now,  wait  a  minute.  Now  you're  saying 
there's  a  reason  for  some  concern.  You're  saying,  as  far  as  you 
know  now,  there  was  no  offensive  use  of  these  weapons  by  the 
Iraqis  that  you've  been  able  to  establish.  But  you're  drawing  a  very 
fine  line  to  say  that  there  may  very  well  have  been  exposures  to 
chemical  agents  during  the  war  period. 

Mr.  DoRN.  As  you  alluded  to  in  your  opening  statement,  Mr. 
Chairman,  there  were  reports  by  the  Czechs  of  the  detection  of 
very  low  levels  of  chemical  agents.  Those  reports  were  never  con- 
firmed independently. 

Nevertheless,  last  October,  I  believe  it  was,  representatives  from 
the  Defense  Intelligence  Agency  began  a  re-review  of  that  Czech 
detection.  You  know  that  Senator  Shelby  also  spent  2  or  3  days  in 
the  Czech  Republic  talking  with  officials  who  had  been  involved  in 
that,  including  the  commander  of  the  unit  that  had  made  those  de- 
tections in  Saudi  Arabia.  As  a  result,  we  have  accepted  those  detec- 
tions as  likely  valid  detections,  even  though  we  have  not  found  the 
independent  confirmatory  evidence. 

The  Chairman.  We're  going  to  come  back  to  this  and  I  want  to 
keep  our  respective  blood  pressures  down  to  a  civil  level  here 
today. 

We  have  already  had  testimony  here  before  the  Senate  from  a 
chemical  detection  unit  officer  in  the  field  running  a  FOX  unit  who 
detected  chemical  agents,  and  he  wasn't  a  Czech  soldier.  He  was 
a  member  of  our  military. 

Mr.  DoRN.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  He  actually  has  a  print-out  of  that.  He's  not  the 
only  one,  by  the  way,  who's  done  that.  You  must  be  aware  of  that. 
Are  you  erasing  that?  Are  you  discarding  that  as  not  being 

Mr.  Dorn.  I'm  not  erasing  it  at  all,  Mr.  Chairman.  Perhaps  Dr. 
Kriese 

The  Chairman.  Please,  unless  you're  here  to  say  that  these  first- 
person  accounts  that  we've  been  given  by  people  who  are  in  the 
field  designed  to  make  these  measurements  are  wrong  or  inac- 
curate, I  think  it  is  misleading  for  you  to  say  that  the  only  evidence 
we  have  is  from  the  Czechs.  That's  not  an  accurate  statement.  Do 
you  want  to  say  again  that  it  is  an  accurate  statement,  that  we 
don't  have  any  reports  up  through  our  own  military  chain  of  com- 
mand? 


21 

Mr.  DoRN,  We  have  reports  through  our  military  chain  of  com- 
mand. What  I  am  saying  is  that  we  are  deaHng  with  a  protocol 
here.  As  you  know,  there  were  any  number  of  reports  or  alarms  of 
chemical  agent  detection  during  the  conflict.  There  was  a  procedure 
for  verifying  those  initial  detections.  Those  secondary  tests  did  not 
verify  the  initial  detection.  That  is  as  close  as  I  can  come  to  the 
technology  here.  But  there  is  simply  a  procedure  by  which  one  con- 
firms an  initial  suspicion.  Those  initial  suspicions  were  not  con- 
firmed in  hundreds  of  instances. 

Senator  Bennett.  Mr.  Chainnan. 

The  Chairman.  Yes,  Senator  Bennett.  After  Senator  Bennett 
asks  his  question,  with  all  due  respect,  I  put  a  question  to  the  two 
people  that  you've  brought  here  today,  and  I  want  direct,  specific, 
under-oath  answers,  not  from  you  on  this  point,  but  from  them. 
Then  if  you  want  to  elaborate,  Mr.  Dorn,  you're  free  to  do  so. 

Senator  Bennett. 

Senator  Bennett.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  simply  want  to  inject  this 
thought  into  this  conversation. 

Implicit  in  your  answer,  Mr.  Secretary,  is  the  idea  that  there  was 
something  wrong  with  those  initial  reports.  That  is,  there  was 
something  that  could  not  be  confirmed.  Therefore,  there  was  some 
malfunction.  There  was  some  panic  on  the  part  of  the  individual. 
There  was  something — whatever  it's  attributed  to.  In  every  case,  as 
I  understand  your  testimony,  you're  saying  that  the  initial  reports 
which  are  included  in  detail  in  this  report  filed  by  the  Chairman 
and  the  Ranking  Member,  Mr.  D'Amato,  were  wrong. 

Is  there  a  possibility,  sir,  that  there  is  something  technically, 
technologically  wrong  with  the  confirmation  process,  that  in  fact 
the  initial  reports  were  accurate  and  that  the  confirmation  process, 
either  through  lack  of  time  so  that  there  is  a  half-life  or  what- 
ever— I'm  not  a  scientist,  so  I  can't  really  help  you  very  much  in 
trying  to  find  out  what  it  is. 

Isn  t  there  a  possibility  that  the  statement  you  have  made  is  100 
percent  accurate,  but  that  the  procedures  used  in  the  confirmation 
process  may  be  faulty,  so  that,  in  fact,  we  end  up  with  the  cir- 
cumstance that  the  reports  are  correct  and  that  the  reports  did,  in- 
deed, find  some  kind  of  presence  of  either  chemical  or  biological 
agents  in  the  area  and  that  the  confirmation  process  is  where  we 
have  seen  this  thing  break  down,  rather  than  the  assumption  that 
the  confirmation  process  is  valid  in  every  circumstance  and  there- 
fore, the  reports  must  be  disregarded.  Can  you  comment  on  that? 

Mr.  Dorn.  It's  a  fascinating  question.  Senator  Bennett,  and  since 
it  deals  with  the  technical  capabilities  of  our  equipment,  I'd  like  to 
defer  to  Dr.  Prociv  to  address  it. 

Dr.  Prociv.  Let  me  try  to  take  that.  That's  an  excellent  question. 

The  way  we  detect  chemical  agents  now,  the  initial  detection  of 
the  alarm  comes  from  an  M8  detector.  The  M8  detector  is  an  ion- 
ization detector  that's  not  highly  specific.  It's  sensitive  to  categories 
of  compounds,  so  it's  a  good  indication  that  we  may  have  a  problem 
in  the  area. 

The  M8  detector  generally  will  detect  between  0.1  and  0.5  milli- 
gram minutes  per  cubic  meter.  We  then  follow  up  with  an  M256 
kit.  Now  this  is  a  hand-held  kit  that  basically  is  a  little  chemical 
laboratory  in  your  pocket.  The  M256  kit  is  very  specific  and  very, 


22 

very  sensitive.  It  goes  three  orders  of  magnitude  better  than  the 
M8  alarm  does.  So  even  if  materials  have  dissipated  after  the  ini- 
tial alarm,  you  should  be  able  to  pick  it  up  with  the  M256  kit.  I've 
worked  with  that  kit  and  I  have  a  lot  of  confidence  in  that  kit. 

Senator  Bennett.  Are  you  aware  of  the  fact  that,  reported  in 
this  document,  there  are  those  who  say  that  their  M256  kits  did 
indeed  test  positive? 

Dr.  Prociv.  I  haven't  seen  this  report  and  I  am  not  aware  of 
those.  I'm  sorry,  sir. 

Senator  Bennett.  I'll  see  if  I  can  find  them.  Thank  you,  Mr. 
Chairman,  and  I'll  call  them  to  your  attention  later  on.  I  noticed 
them  as  I  was  reading  through  this  report. 

The  Chairman.  Very  good.  No,  this  is  a  problem  that  we  have. 
It's  like  two  different  worlds  here,  two  different  realities. 

You  folks  seem  to  find  one  reality  and  the  more  we  dig  into  this, 
a  broad  number  of  us,  both  parties.  House  and  Senate,  the  more 
we  find  a  starkly  different  reality.  It's  extremely  troubling.  And 
when  I  finish  with  the  questions  that  we're  going  to  go  through 
today,  I  think  it's  going  to  be  even  harder  for  people  to  understand 
the  position  of  the  Defense  Department,  that  it  can't  find  this  prob- 
lem, can't  see  this  problem,  doesn't  think  the  problem  exists. 

Senator  Bennett.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  have  found  it,  with  help  from 
staff.  I  can  very  quickly  respond. 

Dale  Glover  was  a  Staff  Sergeant  with 

Mr.  DoRN.  Senator,  can  you  let  us  know  the  page?  As  you  know, 
this  report  was  just  produced.  We  have  not  had  an  opportunity  to 
review  it. 

Senator  Bennett.  OK  It's  on  page  79,  Event  13.  Dale  Glover 
was  a  Staff  Sergeant  with  the  1165th  Military  Police  Company.  He 
recalled  being  awakened  at  3:30  a.m.  The  Battalion  NBC  NCO  was 
announcing  that  they  were  under  chemical  attack.  An  M256  kit 
registered  a  positive  reading  for  a  chemical  agent.  They  went  to 
MOP?  level  4  for  4  hours.  Afterward,  all  of  them  had  runny  noses. 

So  here  is  the  case  where  the  kit  you  have  described  registered 
positive,  unless  you  have  information  that  Mr.  Glover  is  somehow 
mistaken  about  what  happened.  But  this  appears  to  me  to  be  an 
eyewitness  account  contemporary  with  the  event,  reporting  that 
the  kit  that  you  have  described  as  being  very,  very  accurate,  pro- 
duced a  result  contrary  to  that  which  you  just  told  the  Committee 
occurred. 

Dr.  Prociv.  Let  me  take  a  second  to  review  this,  Senator. 

[Pause.] 

OK  The  commentary — ^by  the  way,  I  have  Col.  Merriman  here. 
She  was  the  NBC  officer  at  the  Gulf  and  worked  with  the  staff 
there.  So  all  of  the  NBC  reports,  NBC  events,  went  through  her. 
This  is  a  document  that  she  prepared  for  me.  It  says,  Mr.  Glover 
sent  out  an  M43  detector,  but  not  connected  to  the  M42  alarm. 
When  notified  they  were  under  attack,  Mr.  Glover  went  out  to 
check  the  M43.  The  visual  signal  was  blinking  on  one  detector.  Ac- 
cording to  Mr.  Glover,  there  were  several  possible  causes  for  the 
detector  alarm,  like  a  sonic  bomb  that  occurred  shortly  before  the 
chemical  alert.  Pesticides  or  vehicle  exhaust  could  have  set  it  off. 

Mr.  Glover  and  the  Battalion  NBC  NCO  conducted  a  256  A-1 
kit.  Both  received  a  positive  pale  red  color  on  the  nerve  agent  test 


23 

spot,  but  the  accuracy  of  this  reading  is  suspect.  Both  men  were 
using  a  red  lens  in  their  flashlights.  This  is  a  defensive  measure. 
Mr.  Glover  stated  one  test  kit  nerve  agent  spot  was  a  deeper  red 
than  the  other  test  kit.  Correct  colors  for  nerve  agent  tests  are  blue 
for  safe  and  clear  or  peach  for  nerve.  That's  the  explanation  that 
we've  been  given. 

Senator  Bennett.  Can  you  go  back — I  don't  mean  to  interfere. 

The  Chairman.  No,  please  do,  Senator  Bennett.  This  is  very  im- 
portant. 

Senator  Bennett.  Go  back  to  page  66  on  this  document,  Witness 
No.  04.  I  have  not  gone  through  this  that  carefully.  I  was  just 
thumbing  through  it  while  we  were  going  on.  This  kind  of  sprung 
out  at  me. 

Witness  No.  04,  Mr.  Harold  Jerome  Edwards,  the  chemical  NCO 
in  charge  of  the  Nuclear/Biological/Chemical  Team  for  the  Naval 
Mobile  Construction  Battalion  24  Air  Detachment  at  the  King 
Abdul  Aziz  Naval  Air  Station  was  interviewed  by  the  U.S.  Senate 
staff  on  January  13,  1994.  During  that  interview,  Mr.  Edwards 
said  he  conducted  three  M256  tests  for  chemical  agents  on  the 
evening  of  this  event. 

Mr.  DoRN.  Can  we  get  a  date,  Senator?  We  have  not  looked  at 
this,  and  so  we're  not  quite  certain  what  time  period  we're  talking 
about  here. 

Senator  Bennett.  I  don't  have  that  here. 

The  Chairman.  Apparently,  January  19  or  January  20. 

Senator  Bennett.  Two  of  the  three  tests  he  conducted  were  posi- 
tive for  chemical  blister  agents.  He  said  that  the  negative  test  was 
conducted  in  an  area  in  between  a  number  of  rows  of  tents.  He  also 
said  that  he  reported  this  information  to  his  unit  commander. 

Mr.  Edwards  said  that  a  member  of  the  unit,  Tom  Muse,  blis- 
tered in  the  area  under  his  watch  during  the  event.  The  all-clear 
was  given  from  a  higher  command.  Mr.  Edwards  was  called  out  to 
serve  on  a  chemical  decontamination  team  that  day,  and  so  on  and 
so  forth. 

But  here  is  another  report  of  an  M256  test  that  was  positive,  in 
this  case,  two  positive  tests. 

We'll  keep  looking  for  some  more. 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  just  say  for  the  record,  every  single  one 
of  these  documents  that  are  now  being  produced  that  are  designed 
to  rebut  these  things,  which  apparently,  nobody  knew  about,  but 
everybody's  prepared  to  respond  to,  I  want  it  made  part  of  the 
record.  And  can  I  be  assured  that  well  have  any  and  all  of  that 
information,  Mr.  Dom? 

Mr.  Dorn.  Yes,  you  certainly  can.  Senator. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you. 

Mr.  Dorn.  We  appreciate  seeing  your  report  so  that  we  have  an 
opportunity  to  respond  to  it. 

The  Chairman.  I'm  reminded  by  staff,  and  it's  important  that  we 
add  this  to  the  record.  Prior  to  our  release  of  this  report,  this  infor- 
mation was  delivered  to  the  Defense  Department.  This  is  not  new 
information.  You  didn't  get  this  last  night. 

Mr.  Dorn.  That  may  be  right.  That's  probably 


24 

The  Chairman.  Well,  find  out  if  it's  right.  I'm  saying  to  you  it's 
right.  So  don't  leave  the  inference  that  you've  just  had  it  for  a  few 
hours. 

Mr.  DORN.  No,  clearly,  we  knew  about  this  particular  informa- 
tion. I'm  referring  to  the  broad  report. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  know  how  you  knew  about  it?  Because 
you  got  it  from  us. 

Mr.  Dorn.  That  may  be.  And  let  me  point  out.  Senator,  I  do  not 
see  this  as  an  adversary  process.  As  you  and  other  Members  of  this 
Committee  had  pointed  out,  people  occasionally  will  come  to  you 
with  information  that  they  do  not  share  with  us.  They  come  to  you 
because  you  are  their  Senator  and  they  see  you  as  accessible. 

We  hope  we  can  develop  a  sharing  relationship.  A  member  of 
your  staff,  Mr.  Tuite,  was  kind  enough  to  testify  and  provide  infor- 
mation to  our  defense  science  board.  That  may  be  the  source  of 
some  of  this  information.  We  also  have  gotten  a  great  deal  of  useful 
information  through  our  exchanges  with  the  House  and  Senate 
Armed  Services  Committees  and  with  the  Veterans'  Affairs  Com- 
mittees. So  this  should  be  a  constructive  process. 

I  can  assure  you  that  my  job  here  is  to  find  out  what  happened, 
to  ensure  that  treatment  is  provided,  and  ultimately,  to  get  at 
what's  behind  the  illnesses  that  some  Persian  Gulf  veterans  are  ex- 
periencing. 

I  have  seen  no  information  which  suggests  that  anyone  with 
whom  I've  worked  in  the  Defense  Department,  or  in  the  Congress, 
has  any  other  mission  than  to  get  to  the  truth. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  you're  certainly  welcome  to  put  that  state- 
ment on  the  record. 

The  fact  of  the  matter  is  that  it's  taking  a  very  long  time  to  get 
to  the  truth  here.  What  I  would  like  to  do  now — Senator  Bennett, 
did  you  want  to  pursue  any  further  that  one  issue,  because  I  want 
to  go  back  to  the  outstanding  question  raised  earlier  and  I  want 
a  direct  answer  from  the  two  experts  that  are  here. 

Senator  Bennett.  I  simply  want  to  summarize  what  I  said  ear- 
lier, which  is  the  statement  that  there  was  no  confirmation  at  all 
runs  contrary  to  what  the  Czechs  said.  You've  addressed  that  by 
saying,  in  your  opinion,  the  Czech  monitoring  was  insignificant. 

Mr.  Dorn.  No.  I  said  the  concentration  of  agent  they  detected  at 
the  incident  that  I  recall,  which  was  north  of  King  Khalid  Military 
City  at  Hafir  Al  Batin  on  January  19,  was  a  very  low  concentration 
of  agent.  I  did  not  say  that  the  finding  was  insignificant  in  a 
judgmental  sense. 

Senator  Bennett.  OK 

Mr.  Dorn.  We're  talking  about  the  level  of  agent  that  they  re- 
ported detecting. 

Senator  Bennett.  Good.  I'm  glad  to  get  that  clarified. 

Mr.  Dorn.  OK. 

Senator  Bennett.  Then  you  said  there  was  no  confirmation.  And 
my  point  is  there  appears  to  have  been  some  confirmation,  for 
which  there  may  be  explanations.  But  there  have  been  confirma- 
tions reported  to  the  Congress. 

The  question  I  raise  with  you  has  to  do  with  whether  or  not  the 
confirmation  procedure  is  viable,  given  the  fact  that  we  have  what 
we  have — that  is,  a  number,  a  significant  number  of  people  suffer- 


25 

ing  from  something  that  they  apparently  picked  up  in  the  Gulf,  at 
least  there  is  that  common  thread,  just  as  there  were  with  the  le- 
gionnaires who  attended  their  convention,  that  took  us  a  couple  of 
years  to  figure  out  what  it  was. 

There  is  the  possibility  that  I  hope  you're  hanging  onto  that  your 
confirmation  procedures  are  flawed  and  that  the  existence  of  these 
people  who  have  these  problems  is  a  prima  facie  case  for  the  fact 
that  they  may  be  flawed.  I  don't  think  that  we  can  just  automati- 
cally say,  well,  the  confirmation  didn't  find  it.  Therefore,  there's 
nothing  to  worry  about. 

Mr.  DORN.  Senator  Bennett,  this  gives  me  an  opportunity  to  talk 
about  the  process  and  to  amplify,  if  I  may,  Mr.  Chairman,  this  give 
and  take. 

We  have  received  large  amounts  of  information  and  large  num- 
bers of  questions  from  Members  of  Congress,  from  veterans  organi- 
zations, and  from  others.  It  is  our  task  when  we  receive  those  to 
track  them  down,  to  identify  the  units  and  the  people  involved,  to 
conduct  interviews,  where  necessary. 

Ltc.  Vicki  Merriman,  who  was  introduced  earlier,  has  been  in- 
volved in  a  great  deal  of  that  tracking  down,  and  we  are  talking 
about,  in  some  instances,  hundreds  of  leads  that  have  to  be  teased 
out.  All  of  this  information  then  gets  resifted  through  the 
Lederberg  panel  or  through  other  ways,  so  that  we  can  come  for- 
ward to  you.  In  some  instances,  we  cannot  get  a  direct  answer 
quickly. 

The  Chairman.  Yes.  Well,  let  me  just  say  at  this  point,  and  you'll 
find  this  interesting  too,  I  think,  Senator  Bennett. 

In  February,  the  Defense  Science  Advisory  Board  contacted  the 
Banking  Committee  and  asked  for  a  list  of  witnesses  who  may 
have — of  what  may  have  been  direct  Iraqi  attacks  in  the  context  of 
this  discussion.  We  gave  a  list  of  at  least  one  person  from  each 
event  to  the  Department  of  Defense.  These  persons  were  then 
called  by  the  Department  of  Defense.  And  I'm  going  to  describe  to 
you  what  happened. 

It's  been  reported  back  to  us  by  a  number  of  those  interviewed 
by  DoD  that,  rather  than  being  asked  substantive  questions  about 
the  events  and  to  locate  other  witnesses  that  might  have  been  at 
the  events,  high-ranking  military  officers — and  we  can  talk  about 
who  they  are — said  to  these  individuals  that  they  were  mistaken. 
They  were  told  that  the  Iraqis  did  not  have  the  ability  to  initiate 
these  types  of  attacks,  which  we  know  to  be  false  because  we  got 
the  stockpiles  after  the  war,  if  nothing  else.  And  you  should  know 
that. 

Now,  I  don't  know  whether  that  comes  as  news  to  you  or  not,  but 
I  can  arrange  for  you  to  talk  to  those  people 

Mr.  DoRN.  I  will  do  it.  Senator. 

The  Chairman.  — Who,  hopefully,  will  say  to  you  what  they  said 
to  us,  that  they  got  a  phone  call  saying,  tell  us  everything  you 
know.  Lay  it  all  out.  It  was  a  scripted  phone  call  where  they  were 
presented  with  an  approach  that  said,  it  couldn't  be  a  certain  thing 
because  that  was  off  the  table  as  a  possibility. 

I  think  any  time  you're  using  people  to  do  this  kind  of  investiga- 
tive work  that  may  have  some  stake  in  what  was  done  previously, 


26 

as  well  as  the  decisionmaking  chain  leading  up  to  these  events 
can — I  don't  say  does,  but  can — cause  a  problem. 

I've  been  very  troubled  by  that.  I  think  whoever  is  making  the 
phone  calls,  whether  it's  Ltc.  Merriman  or  anybody  else,  can't  be 
calling  with  a  scripted  approach  that  tries  to  tailor  the  answer  that 
presumably  is  being  asked  for  from  the  person  that  they're  calling. 
And  we've  had  a  problem  in  that  area,  just  for  your  information. 

Mr.  DORN.  Mr.  Chairman,  if  I  can  get  particulars,  I  will  be  more 
than  happy  to  follow  up. 

The  Chairman.  You'll  get  them.  You'll  get  them  because,  again, 
we're  not  going  to  let  any  assertions  be  made  on  the  record  here 
where  we  have  contrary  information.  And  I  appreciate  very  much 
Senator  Bennett  raising  the  issue  with  respect  to  these  testing  kits. 

Now  let  me  come  back  to  my  question  to  your  two  colleagues. 
Can  you  give  us  here  today  your  professional  certification  that 
there  were  no  exposures  of  Gulf  War  veterans  to  either  chemical 
agents  or  biological  agents  out  there  in  that  war  zone? 

Dr.  Prociv.  Since  I've  taken  this  position,  Mr.  Chairman,  I  have 
reviewed  a  lot  of  data  and  a  lot  of  cases.  My  statement  that  I  do 
not  believe  that  any  chemical  agents  were  used  by  the  Iraqis 

The  Chairman.  No,  that's  not  what  I  said.  I  understand  double- 
talk  when  I  hear  it.  That's  not  what  I  asked  you. 

[Laughter.] 

That's  not  what  I  asked  you.  And  with  all  due  respect,  let  me  re- 
peat it  again  because  I'd  like  an  answer  to  my  question,  and  then 
if  you  want  to  elaborate,  you  can. 

I  realize  everybody's  designed  here  to  veer  off  into  the  question 
as  to  whether  there  was  an  attack,  a  verifiable  attack  by  the  Iraqis 
to  use  these  weapons.  I  did  not  pose  that  question.  I  asked  you 
under  oath  for  your  professional  opinion  to  give  me  a  certification 
of  your  belief  and  confidence  that  no  Gulf  War  veterans  had  any 
exposure  to  chemical  agents  or  biological  agents  while  they  were  in 
the  war  zone.  Now  can  you  give  us  that  certification,  regardless  of 
the  source? 

Dr.  Prociv.  Again,  Mr.  Chairman,  I'm  not  a  medical  doctor.  I 
don't  understand  a  lot  of  the  medical  symptomology.  What  I  do  un- 
derstand is  that  when  chemical  agents  are  used,  and  I  understand 
how  they  are  dispersed,  I  understand  how  they're  detected,  in  all 
of  the  evidence  that  I  have  seen  that  I  can  say  in  my  own  profes- 
sional certification,  I  can  say  that  I  do  not  believe  that  any  chemi- 
cal agents  entered  the  theater  of  operations  and  exposed  any  of  our 
soldiers.  That  I  can  say. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  I've  got  to  make  sure  that  I  understand 
every  single  word  in  your  sentence  here.  I  want  to  make  sure  be- 
cause you're  putting  your  professional  reputation  on  the  line,  and 
you're  doing  it  under  oath.  Meanwhile,  I've  got  a  lot  of  sick  veter- 
ans all  across  the  country,  some  in  the  room  today,  who  heard  the 
chemical  alarms  going  off  all  the  time,  even  though  the  chemical 
alarms  were  set  at  a  much  higher  level  than  we  know  can  cause 
a  problem  if  there's  extended  exposure.  You  know  that  as  well. 

But  you're  telling  us,  in  your  testimony  today,  that  it  is  your  best 
professional  belief  that  we  don't  have  a  single  veteran  coming  back 
from  the  Gulf  War  who  had  an  exposure  to  chemical  agents  or  bio- 


27 

logical  agents  in  that  war  zone.  And  you're  here  today  under  oath 
with  your  professional  reputation  on  the  line. 

Dr.  Prociv.  Sir,  again,  I'm  here  to  say  that,  knowing  what  I 
know  and  what  I've  reviewed,  I  do  not  understand  how  any  of  our 
veterans  could  have  been  exposed 

The  Chairman.  I  didn't  ask 

Dr.  Prociv.  I  have  to  say  it  this  way  because  I'm  not  a  medical 
doctor,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Maybe  we  need  a  medical  doctor  to  answer  the 
question. 

Let  me  ask  the  same  question  of  you.  Dr.  Kriese. 

Dr.  Kriese.  Sir,  in  the  intelligence  community,  one  of  our,  if  you 
will,  reminders  is  that  absence  of  evidence  is  not  evidence  of  ab- 
sence. So  I  cannot  say  absolutely,  categorically,  that  there  was  no 
chemical  or  biological  use  and  nobody  was  affected.  I  can  tell  you 
that,  based  on  all  the  evidence  I've  seen,  my  judgment  is  that  it 
was  not  used.  But  as  a  professional,  I  cannot  tell  you 

The  Chairman.  Now  when  you  say,  not  used,  you  mean — by  not 
used,  you  mean,  what?  That  there  was  an  offensive  use  of  these 
weapons? 

Dr.  Kriese.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  You've  not  been  able  to  validate  in  your  own 
mind  an  incident  or  instances  where  they  would  have  been  used  in 
an  offensive  way. 

Dr.  Kriese.  That's  correct,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  But  you  also  make  the  point  that  you're  not  pre- 
pared to  rule  out  the  possibility  that  these  agents  got  loose  in  some 
way  and  may  in  fact  have  had  an  effect  on  some  people.  You  can't 
comment  one  way  or  the  other  on  that. 

Dr.  Kriese.  I  think  it's  impossible  to  prove  a  negative.  I  don't 
mean  that  lightly,  sir.  This  is  a  very  difficult  issue,  with  low  levels, 
many  people  involved. 

The  Chairman.  You  see,  it's  difficult,  when  you  have  hundreds, 
and  now  thousands,  of  eyewitness  accounts  of  people  who  are  in 
the  theater  of  operations  and  the  chemical  alarms  go  off.  The  chem- 
ical alarms  sound. 

Now  the  chemical  alarms  were  not  just  sitting  out  there  waiting. 
We  designed  them.  We  sent  them  out  there.  We  put  them  there  be- 
cause we  were  worried  that  this  might  happen.  That's  why  the 
chemical  alarms  were  there  in  the  first  place.  That's  why  all  the 
gear  was  there  in  the  first  place. 

That's  why  we  have  job  titles  that  some  of  you  carry  that  talk 
about  biological  and  chemical  warfare,  because  this  is  a  real  issue 
and  it's  not  somebody's  invention.  Saddam  Hussein  has  done  this 
in  the  past,  killed  his  own  people  with  these  kinds  of  weapons.  This 
isn't  science  fiction  or  fantasy. 

So  we  understood  that  there  might  very  well  be  a  problem.  We 
put  all  the  monitors  out  there  and  then  the  monitors  kept  sounding 
and  people  keep  taking  their  MOP?  gear  on  and  off.  There's  no 
question  in  your  mind  about  that  having  happened,  is  there? 

Dr.  Kriese.  No. 

The  Chairman.  OK.  How  many  times,  to  your  knowledge,  would 
you  say  the  chemical  alarms  went  off  throughout  the  whole  theater 
of  operation  where  they  were  placed  to  try  to  detect  the  chemicals? 


28 

Dr.  Kriese.  I  think  Dr.  Prociv  probably  has  a  better  estimate 
than  I  do. 

Dr.  Prociv.  I  can't  quote  an  exact  number,  but  there  are  times 
when  those  alarms  are  deliberately  set  off.  For  instance,  in  the 
regiment,  the  NBC  platoons  are  required  to,  in  fact,  test  those 
alarms.  What  may  have  fallen  apart  is  that  they  may  not  have  no- 
tified the  soldiers  they  were  testing  the  alarms.  So,  as  a  minimum, 
twice  a  day,  they  would  have  tested. 

[Applause.] 

No,  please. 

The  Chairman.  Let's  have  order. 

Dr.  Prociv.  I  also  will  admit  that  they  are  prone  to  false  alarms. 
They  are  prone 

The  Chairman.  But  you  can  see  all  the  possibilities.  It's  amazing 
to  me  how  clear  your  mind  is  on  all  the  reasons  why  the  alarms 
could  go  off — how  it  could  be  an  accident  or  mistake  or  faulty 
equipment. 

So  now  we  have  a  new  question — why  are  we  buying  faulty 
equipment?  Why  are  we  putting  faulty  alarms  out  there?  In  fact, 
I  don't  understand  whv  we're  putting  alarms  out  there  that  detect 
a  level  1,000  times  higher  than  what  we  know  can  cause  a  problem 
over  a  period  of  time. 

Dr.  Prociv.  I  could  quote  some  numbers  there,  also. 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  ask  you  this  question.  I'm  going  to  ask 
you  for  the  record.  Again,  I  would  urge  you  to  measure  your  an- 
swer. Was  the  M8AI  automatic  chemical  agent  detection  alarm 
which  was  deployed  during  the  war  sufficiently  sensitive  to  detect 
harmful  exposure  levels  of  chemical  nerve  agents? 

Dr.  Prociv.  The  MS — ^yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Are  you  saying,  then,  that  there  could  be  an  ex- 
posure level  harmful  to  somebody  that  could  come  in  beneath  the 
level  that  device  was  scheduled  to  measure?  If  there  were  chronic 
exposures  that  went  on  for  a  period  of  time  below  those  levels, 
couldn't  those  cause  medical  problems  in  people? 

Dr.  Prociv.  I  believe  that  there  is  data  that  shows  that  chronic 
levels  at  very  low  levels  do  cause  problems.  But  I  believe  it's  only 
with 

The  Chairman.  But  the  machines  weren't  designed  to  pick  that 
up,  were  they? 

Dr.  Prociv.  It  was  only  with  mustard,  is  my  understanding. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  we'll  get  to  that.  But  the  machines  were 
not  designed  to  pick  up  low  levels  on  a  chronic  level,  were  they? 

Dr.  Prociv.  No.  The  MS  detection,  the  range  of  0.1  to  0.5.  You 
can  get  myosis,  which  are  the  initial  symptoms,  at  0.005.  But  the 
first  time  that  you  get  a  runny  nose  is  at  0.5.  That's  the  second 
symptom.  And  0.5  is  well  within  the  detection  range  of  the  MS. 

The  Chairman.  We  can  go  back  and  forth  on  this.  The  fact  is 

Mr.  DORN.  Senator. 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  just  finish.  He  and  I  are  having  a  discus- 
sion. I'd  be  happy  to  call  on  you  in  a  minute. 

I'm  distressed  about  the  fact  that  we've  got  a  million  reasons 
why  we  can't  find  the  problem.  We  can't  get  to  the  root  of  this 
thing.  We  have  all  these  sick  veterans  out  there,  wives  and  kids 
getting  sick,  and  we  just  can't  find  out  what's  causing  it. 


29 

Now,  we're  going  to  stay  on  this  trail  because  I  think  it's  quite 
clear  what  is  causing  part  of  it,  and  it  falls  into  this  zone.  Not  just 
the  exposure  to  chemical  items.  I'm  convinced  that's  part  oi  it. 
You're  not  convinced  that's  part  of  it.  We  have  a  difference  of  opin- 
ion on  that  issue. 

When  you  talk  to  the  sick  veterans  who  were  in  the  theater  of 
operation  where  the  alarms  were  going  off,  the  ones  who  are  now 
sick  are  overwhelmingly  convinced  that  there  is  a  relationship. 
Now  maybe  you're  smarter  than  they  are  and  maybe  they're  smart- 
er than  you  are.  The  consequences  for  them  are  a  lot  higher  than 
they  are  for  you  because  you're  not  sitting  here  sick,  with  all  due 
respect. 

[Applause.] 

Dr.  Prociv.  Sir,  if  I  can  just  go  on  the  record.  I  don't  disagree 
that  there  are  sick  veterans.  I  was  a  veteran  myself.  I'm  very  sym- 
pathetic toward  the  veterans.  I  wouldn't  be  working  for  the  Depart- 
ment of  Defense — I  just  left  a  20-year  career  in  industry  to  work 
for  the  Department  of  Defense  because  I  believe  in  this  cause. 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  give  you  another  example  of  how  power- 
fully real  it  is  in  the  lives  of  real  people. 

Col.  Smith  over  here  who's  sitting  in  the  wheelchair  spent  30 
years  in  the  military  himself  He  was  in  excellent  health  when  he 
went  over  to  the  Persian  Gulf,  actually  had  prior  training  as  a  vet- 
erinarian, so  he  knows  something  about  what  causes  people  to  get 
sick  and  die,  and  animals  to  get  sick  and  die. 

He's  no  longer  in  the  service.  I'm  doing  this  from  memory,  but 
after  a  long  struggle,  he  finally  received  a  20  percent,  I  think  it  is, 
service  disability  related  to  his  problems,  although  he  can  hardly 
get  up  out  of  the  wheelchair  and  walk. 

When  he  was  invited  to  go  on  the  Phil  Donahue  Show  to  talk 
about  this  problem,  as  a  guy  with  a  background  in  this  area  who 
is  very,  very  sick,  he  was  told  by  somebody  in  the  military,  it  would 
be  a  good  idea  for  him  not  to  wear  his  uniform  and  all  those  rib- 
bons on  his  chest. 

I've  got  to  tell  you,  I'm  much  more  concerned  right  now  with  sick 
veterans  than  I  am  with  veterans  like  yourself  who  I  respect  very 
much  who  are  not  sick.  I  think  if  you  were  sick,  if  you  were  sitting 
in  his  wheelchair,  your  feeling  about  this  would  be  dramatically 
different. 

I  think  part  of  the  problem  here  is  that  the  people  who  ran  the 
operation  during  the  Gulf  War  are  not  sick  because  they  were  not 
the  ones  out  into  the  area  of  exposure  and  who  have  not  come  back 
with  these  problems.  And  so,  I  think  it's  very  hard  sometimes  for 
us  to  put  ourselves  in  the  other  person's  shoes.  That's  why  it  would 
be  very  healthy  for  some  of  these  interviews  to  be  conducted  di- 
rectly. I'm  going  to  ask,  and  we're  going  to  bring  the  witnesses  in 
here,  if  I  have  to  bring  in  500  witnesses  and  we  have  to  do  this 
hour  by  hour  by  hour,  we're  going  to  get  the  Defense  Department 
to  pay  sufficient  attention  to  this  problem. 

I  don't  think  that's  happened  yet,  with  all  due  respect.  As  Sen- 
ator Bennett  points  out,  with  the  atomic  exposure  problem  years 
ago,  and  as  I  mentioned  with  the  Agent  Orange  exposure,  I  think 
there's  an  enormous  institutional  difficulty  for  a  bureaucracy, 
whether  it's  the  Defense  Department  or  some  other  agency  of  the 


30 

Government,  to  ever  come  "to  terms  with  perhaps  some  grievance 
decision  errors  about  equipment,  about  exposure,  about  things  that 
maybe  weren't  properly  planned  for  that  happened  after  the  fact. 
We  have  some  of  that  here,  and  we're  going  to  have  to  deal  with 
it  because  you  have  a  problem  here  that's  a  lot  bigger  than  you  un- 
derstand right  now. 

You  have  wives  and  children  that  are  sick.  I  don't  know  how 
many  of  them  you've  talked  to.  I'm  going  to  give  you  some  names 
of  spouses  that  are  sick,  whose  reproductive  situation  has  been 
knocked  completely  haywire  since  their  husbands  have  come  back 
from  the  Persian  Gulf,  and  some  women  veterans  who  have  come 
back  and  whose  reproductive  situation  is  completely  haywire. 

They  think,  and  I  believe  that  they're  right  in  thinking  it,  that 
they  were  exposed  to  agents  out  there  that  have  caused  this  to  hap- 
pen. They  had  a  perfect  health  profile  before  they  went.  In  fact, 
they  couldn't  have  gone  without  a  good  health  profile. 

You  need  to  talk  to  them,  not  through  intermediaries  and  the 
chain  of  command  where  everybody  understands  that  if  there's  a 
line  that  we're  going  to  follow  here  that  there  were  no  exposures 
and  we're  all  going  to  hue  to  that  point  of  view,  it  gets  very  easy 
to  start  to  tailor  v^at's  being  heard  into  that  sort  of  channel.  I've 
seen  it  too  many  times  and  I  think  it's  happening  here. 

I  want  you  to  talk  to  some  of  these  people.  I  want  you  to  sit  down 
and  get  right  up  close  to  them  because  if  there  is  a  problem  where 
this  thing  is  moving  through  families,  as  we  now  have  enough  an- 
ecdotal evidence  for  me  to  believe  that  it  is,  you  ought  to  get  up 
close  to  it.  You  ought  to  look  at  it.  You  ought  to  look  at  the  sick 
kids,  not  just  Col.  Smith  and  the  others  that  are  here  right  now 
who  have  given  as  much  or  more  time  in  uniform  as  you  have  and 
who  are  now  sick  and  are  being  tossed  out  the  side  door,  quite 
frankly. 

That's  what's  happening  because,  in  effect,  there's  a  problem  but 
we  don't  know  what  caused  the  problem.  It  couldn't  be  chemical. 
It  couldn't  be  biological  because  we  can't  find  any  evidence  of  that. 
Therefore,  we're  not  going  to  aim  our  treatment  regime  down  that 
track  because  if  it  never  happened,  then  that  can't  oe  the  cause  of 
the  problem.  So  let's  look  for  other  things.  Let's  look  for  mental 
problems.  Let's  look  for  this.  Let's  look  for  that. 

This  is  not  a  mental  problem.  It  is  a  mental  problem,  I  think,  in 
the  Defense  Department.  I  think  it's  fair  to  say  that  because  the 
defense  establishment  has  decided  that  this  problem  has  to  be  out- 
side certain  boundaries.  Yet,  all  of  the  evidence  is  accumulating, 
and  we're  going  to  go  through  it  here  today.  We've  gotten  side- 
tracked here,  which  is  a  little  bit  regrettable  because  I  want  to  nail 
down  specific  things  here  and  we're  going  to  do  that. 

But  I  think  what  is  happening  here  is  that  the  Defense  Depart- 
ment almost  cannot  allow  itself  to  come  to  any  conclusion  that 
there  could  have  been  or  was  any  significant  amount  of  chemical 
or  biological  exposure.  I  can  see  a  lot  of  reasons  why  that  could  be 
the  conclusion  that  the  Department  would  find  itself  backed  into 
thinking  that  it  had  to  reach. 

I  would  like  an  assurance — and  I  don't  know  if  you  can  give  it. 
Secretary  Dom,  or  not — I'd  like  an  assurance  today,  an  iron-clad 
assurance    that   every   active-duty   military    service    person    who 


31 

served  in  the  Gulf  who  now  is  sick  and  who  is  afraid  to  come  for- 
ward, as  many  are  because  they're  afraid  that  they're  going  to  get 
drummed  out  of  the  service.  It's  tough  to  find  jobs  on  the  outside, 
especially  if  you're  sick,  if  you're  leaving  the  military  because 
you've  got  a  health  problem.  And  it's  very  tough  to  remain  in  the 
military  if  you've  got  a  health  problem,  and  especially  if  it's  in  this 
area  that  the  Defense  Department  I  don't  think  is  very  comfortable 
with. 

We've  got  to  have  an  assurance,  and  I'd  like  it  stated  explicitly 
by  the  Secretary,  that  no  active-duty  person  will  be  sent  out  of  the 
military  if  they  come  forward  and  indicate  that  they  have  these 
problems  and  that  they  won't  be  off-loaded  for  some  other  reason 
that's  a  fake  reason.  And  that,  in  fact,  if  they  have  to  leave  the 
service  because  they  are  so  sick  coming  off  the  service  in  the  Gulf 
War,  that  they  will  get  service-connected  disability  and  so  they're 
not  just  going  to  go  out  and  land  on  the  scrap  heap  and  find  they 
can't  get  a  job  and  they're  uninsurable. 

I  think  we  have  to  have  that  assurance,  or  you're  never  going  to 
know  how  many  people  you  have  in  the  active-duty  force  that  are 
sick.  Can  you  give  me  that  today  or  can  you  within  the  next  few 
days  give  me  a  commitment  that  you'll  get  that  from  the  Secretary? 

Mr.  DORN.  I  certainly  can.  Senator.  I  can  say  that  we  want  peo- 
ple to  come  forward.  We  recently  fashioned  a  new  program,  as  you 
may  know,  for  encouraging  people  to  come  forward  and  for  giving 
them  a  systematic  treatment  protocol  so  that  we  can  ensure  that 
we  are  searching  for  everything  we  possibly  can  search  for  and  so 
that  we  can  assure  that  they're  being  given  the  best  treatment.  We 
also  are  working  on  the  appropriate  disability  compensation  rules. 

There  was  an  earlier  mention  by  a  Member  of  your  Committee 
that  the  legislation  needs  to  be  changed  so  that  we  do  not  insist 
on  proof  of  a  service  connection.  That  legislation  has  been  proposed 
by  Mr.  Montgomery,  the  Chairman  of  the  House  Veterans'  Affairs 
Committee.  We  have  been  given  an  opportunity  to  comment  on  it. 

But  let  me  say  further.  Senator,  if  I  can  broaden  this  a  little,  we 
are  trying  not  to  close  our  eyes  to  things.  This  is  one  of  the  reasons 
we  have  asked  the  Lederberg  group  to  look  at  the  possible  long- 
term  effects  of  low  levels  of  exposure  to  chemical  agent.  And  this 
is  why  we  have  a  range  of  research  programs  that  look  at  a  variety 
of  possibilities  from  infectious  agents  to  the  possibility  of  environ- 
mental exposures. 

Senator  Bennett.  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  I  might  just  say  that  there  already  has  been  re- 
search done  on  that,  as  a  matter  of  record,  we've  included  it  in  our 
report.  It's  toward  the  end  in  an  appendix,  having  to  do  with  infor- 
mation developed  by  the  U.S.  Army  Chemical  Research  Develop- 
ment Engineering  Center,  indicating  the  problems  that  do  exist 
with  prolonged  low-level  exposure.  So 

Mr.  Dorn.  I  believe  Mr.  Tuite  shared  that  information  with  the 
Lederberg  panel. 

He  did  not?  OK. 

The  Chairman.  Presumably,  they  would  know  about  this. 

Mr.  Dorn.  They'll  find  it. 

The  Chairman.  It's  all  the  same  operation.  You  see,  if  this  is  an 
issue  that  everybody  really  wants  to  understand,  work  that's  al- 


32 

ready  been  done  within  the  apparatus  of  the  defense  establishment 
ought  to  be  the  first  thing  that  comes  to  the  surface. 

I  would  think  that  if  the  Defense  Secretary  turned  around  and 
said  to  the  next  person  in  command,  I  want  every  scrap  of  informa- 
tion that  we  have,  anything  that  we've  done.  I  want  to  know  every- 
thing that  there  is  to  know  that's  in  our  files,  records,  research  on 
chemical  and  biological  testing,  information  of  any  and  all  sorts.  I 
would  assume  that  within  a  matter  of  days,  if  not  hours,  people 
could  ^0  like  this  and  all  the  information  ne  asked  for  would  sur- 
face. Or  am  I  wrong  in  that  assumption? 

Mr.  DoRN.  We  thought  so,  too.  And  you  may  recall  that  last  No- 
vember, in  response  to  a  request  from  another  Senate  Committee, 
we  tried  in  the  course  of  a  week  or  two  to  produce  definitive  an- 
swers to  questions  such  as  those  we  are  discussing  today.  We  think 
we  got  pretty  close,  but  it  turned  out  that  there  was  simply  more 
information  out  there  than  we  could  reasonably  digest  in  the  course 
of  a  few  days. 

This  is  one  of  the  reasons  the  Lederberg  group  has  spent  several 
months  looking  at  this  matter.  On  that  panel  are  people  who  have 
spent  many  years  studying  a  variety  of  issues  that  may  be  related 
to  these  illnesses  and  to  possible  exposures  to  a  variety  of  environ- 
mental or  chemical  or  biological  agents  in  the  Gulf  They  are  still 
hard  at  work  producing  their  findings.  But  there  is  a  lot  of  lit- 
erature here. 

The  Chairman.  I  really  don't  want  anybody  else  sent  out  into  the 
field  of  battle  where  we're  likely  to  run  into  chemical  and  biological 
weapons,  where  we  know  we've  got  a  bad  guy  on  the  other  side 
who  has  been  developing  these  weapons,  been  using  these  weapons 
on  his  own  people,  and  we  say  to  our  service  men  and  women,  look, 
suit  up.  We're  going  to  send  you  in  there.  But  we're  not  quite  sure 
what  we're  likely  to  run  into.  We  don't  necessarily  have  the  kind 
of  gear  we  might  like  to  have.  We're  not  necessarily  able  to  meas- 
ure effectively  biological  exposures,  even  though  we  know  this  guy's 
been  working  on  that.  But  we'd  like  you,  in  the  name  of  the  Amer- 
ican Government  and  Uncle  Sam,  to  get  right  on  in  there. 

Here  we  are  facing  a  situation  with  the  North  Koreans.  In  my 
mind,  the  North  Koreans  may  be  as  entirely  capable  of  diabolical 
activities  of  any  and  all  kinds  as  Saddam  Hussein. 

I  can  see  why,  if  you  were  concerned  about  biological  and  chemi- 
cal weapons  activity  on  the  part  of  the  North  Koreans,  why  there 
might  be  a  reluctance  to  even  want  to  talk  about  the  issue,  so  you 
dicm't  have  a  panic  with  our  troops  who  are  up  on  the  front  line 
who  might  be  concerned  that  3  years  from  now,  if  they're  engaged 
in  a  fracas  over  there,  they  might  end  up  like  Col.  Smith  in  a 
wheelchair. 

And  so,  I  would  hope  that  we  would  never  get  to  the  point  where 
the  thinking  is,  let's  get  the  mission  done  and  then  we'll  treat  the 
walking  wounded,  maybe,  later  on  down  the  line  or  we'll  figure  out 
what  that  problem  is  at  a  later  time. 

I  would  hope  that  we  would  never  get  into  a  frame  of  mind 
where  the  objective  in  the  immediate  military  sense  puts  the 
health  and  safety  of  our  own  forces  in  a  secondary  situation.  Even 
though  that's  happened  before  in  your  lifetime  and  mine.  It  hap- 
pened in  Vietnam,  in  my  opinion,  and  I  think  the  evidence  bears 


33 

it  out  and  the  Vietnam  veterans  clearly  feel  that  way.  So  you  don't 
have  to  stretch  your  imagination  to  imagine  scenarios  like  that  be- 
cause we're  living  with  the  after-effects  of  that  right  now. 

Mr.  DoRN.  May  I,  Mr.  Chairman,  associate  myself  with  some- 
thing Senator  Bond  said  earlier? 

The  Chairman.  Then  I  want  to  call  on  Senator  Bennett,  who  has 
been  waiting  patiently  to  get  in  here. 

Mr.  DoRN.  Our  effort  here  is,  first  and  foremost,  of  course,  to 
treat  the  sick  veterans.  That  we  are  trying  to  do.  Second,  to  find 
out  what  the  underlying  causes  are  and  to  deal  with  those. 

The  Chairman.  But 

Mr.  DoRN.  Senator  Bond  said  something  else.  He  said  we  have 
to  prepare  for  the  future. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  just  one  second.  Just  one  second,  Mr.  Dom. 
I  think  the  problem,  and  the  reason  you  got  a  murmur  out  of  the 
veterans  who  are  here,  is  that  so  many  of  them  feel  that  their  prob- 
lem is  in  the  chemical/biological  exposure  zone.  And  if  the  Depart- 
ment feels  that  that  can't  be  the  cause  of  their  problem  and  there- 
fore, the  research  efforts  are  really  directed  down  other  channels 
in  any  serious  way,  they  feel  like  they're  likely  to  continue  to  stay 
sick  and  get  sicker  and  die  in  the  meantime  because  you're  going 
down  divergent  tracks. 

Mr.  Dorn.  If  that  is  the  impression  I  left,  please  give  me  an  op- 
portunity to  clarify  it. 

One  of  the  reasons  we  focused  in  my  opening  statement  on  chem- 
ical and  biological  weapons  is,  it  was  our  understanding  that  that 
was  this  Committee's  concern,  how  those  weapons  got  into  the 
hands  of  the  Iraqis  and  whether  they  were  used. 

However,  I  want  to  make  absolutely  clear  that  we  are  exploring 
every  possible  or  every  plausible  cause  for  these  illnesses,  including 
the  possibility  of  exposure  to  some  type  of  chemical  agent,  the  pos- 
sibility of  exposure  to  various  environmental  pollutants,  the  pos- 
sible long-term  health  effects  of  the  Kuwaiti  oil  fires,  infectious  dis- 
eases such  as  leishmaniasis.  There  may  be  others.  We  are  looking 
at  a  full  range  of  possibilities. 

One  of  the  frustrations  for  some  of  the  people  who  are  vitally 
concerned  with  this  is  that  there  are  strong  proponents  of  each  of 
those  theories.  We  spend  a  lot  of  time  explaining  why  we  are  trying 
to  develop  a  program  that  looks  at  all  of  the  possibilities  rather 
than  honing  in  solely  on  multiple  chemical  sensitivity  or  the  Ku- 
waiti oil  fires.  We  are  examining  a  full  range  of  possibilities  here. 
Now,  how  soon  will  the  results  come  out?  This  is  difficult.  This  is 
research.  We  are  not  confident  how  soon  the  results  will 

The  Chairman.  How  much  are  we  spending  at  the  present  time? 
Do  you  know  offhand? 

Mr.  Dorn.  I'll  have  to  get  back  to  you  on  that  because  I  cannot 
give  you  a  total.  Keep  in  mind  that  this  research  is  being  done 
under  a  lot  of  auspices.  DoD  is  sponsoring  some  of  it.  VA  is  spon- 
soring some  of  it.  Some  of  it  is  being  done  through  Health  and 
Human  Services,  their  Centers  for  Disease  Control  and  Prevention. 
I  will  try  to  put  together  some  numbers  for  you. 

The  Chairman.  Senator  Bennett. 

Senator  Bennett.  Thank  you,  Mr.  Chairman. 


34 

I'll  spare  the  editorial  comment  that  I  was  about  to  make.  Let 
me  go  back  to  the  issue. 

The  Chairman  asked  a  specific  question  to  which  he  did  not  get 
an  answer.  I'm  interested  in  the  answer.  The  question  was  how 
many  times  did  the  alarms  go  off?  The  answer  was,  well,  we  don't 
really  know,  and  so  on. 

All  right.  I  used  to  give  that  kind  of  an  answer  to  a  boss  that 
was  not  sympathetic  to  that  kind  of  an  answer  and  he  would  al- 
ways say  to  me  when  I'd  say,  well,  I  can't  give  you  an  exact  num- 
ber. He'd  say,  how  many  would  you  be  surprised  if  it  were  more 
than?  Can  you  give  us  a  ballpark  figure?  How  many  would  you  be 
surprised  if  it  were  more  than  or  less  than,  and  give  us  kind  of  a 
bracket? 

Then  as  you  investigate  this,  and  you  probably  can't  answer  it 
here,  and  I  would  be  surprised  if  you  could,  I  would  like  an  answer 
for  the  record,  how  many  times  was  the  gear  replaced  after  the 
alarms  went  off.  And  to  focus  exactly  on  what  I'm  talking  about, 
I'll  direct  you  to  page  65  of  the  report  provided  by  the  Chairman 
and  the  Ranking  Member. 

There,  by  coincidence,  seems  to  be  two  occasions  here  where  the 
alarms  went  off  and  the  gear  was  replaced. 

The  first  one,  quoting  a  Mr.  Fred  Willoughby  of  Columbus,  Geor- 
gia, who  was  with  the  Naval  Mobile  Construction  Battalion.  He  has 
reported  that  on  January  20,  1991,  at  about  3:00  to  4:00  a.m.,  he 
was  hanging  out  outside  his  tent  when  he  heard  a  long,  loud  explo- 
sion. Shortly  thereafter,  a  siren  sounded  and  he  went  inside  the 
tent  to  get  his  gas  mask.  By  the  time  he  came  out,  people  were 
yelling,  MOPP  4,  MOPP  4,  not  a  drill.  Immediately,  his  mouth, 
lips,  and  face  became  numb  all  over,  a  sensation  he  likened  to  no- 
vocaine  at  the  dentist's  office.  He  was  in  the  bunker  for  about  an 
hour  or  an  hour  and  a  half.  When  he  came  out  of  the  bunker,  he 
and  others  in  his  unit  were  told  bv  the  officers  and  chiefs  that  what 
they  had  heard  was  just  a  sonic  boom.  The  next  day,  the  unit  was 
told  not  to  talk  about  it. 

Here's  the  operative  sentence — but  the  unit's  MOPP  gear  was 
collected  and  replaced  the  next  morning.  I  want  to  know  how  many 
times  that  happened,  where  an  alarm  went  off  and  subsequently  to 
the  alarm  going  off,  someone  had  the  MOPP  gear  collected  and  re- 
placed. 

Go  down  to  the  next  one  just  below  it.  Roy  Morrow  of  Phenix 
City,  Alabama,  assigned  to  the  Air  Detachment,  King  Abdul  Aziz 
Stadium. 

On  January  20,  1991,  he  heard  two  explosions  between  3:00  and 
3:30  a.m.  He  was  awakened,  went  to  the  bunker.  The  unit  went  to 
MOPP  2  level  for  25  to  30  minutes.  The  all-clear  was  then  given. 
When  he  exited  the  bunker,  Mr.  Morrow  noticed  the  Marines  run- 
ning and  screaming,  MOPP  level  4.  The  siren  sounded  again.  He 
began  to  feel  a  burning  sensation  on  his  arms,  legs,  the  back  of  his 
neck,  his  ears,  and  his  face,  his  lips  felt  numb.  His  unit  went  to 
full  MOPP  level  4.  Right  before  he  went  to  the  bunker  the  second 
time,  Mr.  Morrow  saw  a  flash  in  the  commercial  port  of  Al-Jubayl. 
He  had  a  radio  in  the  bunker,  so  on  and  so  forth. 

When  they  began  to  discuss  it,  down  in  the  next  paragraph,  he's 
talking  with  the  head  of  the  decontamination  team  in  his  unit.  And 


35 

when  they  began  to  discuss  it,  according  to  Mr.  Morrow,  the  unit 
was  told  that  the  two  explosions  were  a  sonic  boom  and  they  were 
ordered  not  to  talk  about  it  any  more.  The  next  day,  all  of  their 
chemical  gear  was  collected  and  replaced  with  new  equipment. 

I  am  sure  in  the  logs  of  those  units,  the  sounding  of  the  alarms, 
the  going  to  MOPP  4  level,  and  the  collecting  and  replacing  of  the 
equipment  is  recorded.  If  there's  one  thing  our  military  does  well, 
it  is  multiply  paper  and  record  things  that  went  on,  and  people 
keep  logs. 

I  would  like  to  know  how  many  times  the  alarms  went  off,  and 
after  the  alarms  going  off,  regardless  of  the  explanation  as  to  why, 
someone  felt  it  necessary  to  collect  and  replace  all  of  the  MOPP 
equipment,  because,  certainly  on  its  face,  it  would  appear  that 
somebody  on  the  scene  at  the  time  was  convinced  that  the  gear  was 
contaminated  or  would  not  have  had  it  replaced. 

Finally,  just  as  another  footnote,  as  I  browsed  through  this 

The  Chairman.  I'm  wondering,  do  you  have  a  response? 

[No  response  provided.] 

Senator  Bennett.  Do  you  have  a  response  on  that?  I'm  assuming 
that  you  don't  have  that  statistic.  But  if  you  do,  I'd  be  glad  to 

The  Chairman.  There  ought  to  be  somebody  here  that  knows. 
There  are  a  lot  of  people  here  that  are  experts  in  this  area.  Who 
can  get  the  closest  to  an  answer? 

Dr.  Prociv.  I  guess  the  difficulty  of  coming  up  with  a  number, 
and  we  will  try.  We  will  try  to  provide  one  for  the  record.  The  only 
time  that  a  record  is  made  of  an  alarm  is  if  it's  a  verified  alarm. 
An  NBC  1  report  is  prepared  and  that's  sent  upstairs. 

The  Chairman.  Now  what  is  a  verified  alarm? 

Dr.  Prociv.  An  alarm  goes  off  and  the  M256  kit  is  used  to  verify 
it. 

The  Chairman.  So  when  the  alarm  goes  off,  if  there  isn't  that 
kind  of  a  verification,  you  wouldn't  count  it,  anyway. 

Dr.  Prociv.  No. 

The  Chairman.  Would  you  then  kind  of  switch  back  to  the  other 
point,  that  maybe  it  was  a  faulty  alarm  or 

Dr.  Prociv.  I'm  trying  to  be  open-minded  here. 

We  probably  wouldn't  hear  about  it,  but  it  may  be  that  the  com- 
pany would  keep  records,  that  Central  Command  would  keep 
records.  And  so,  we  will  try  to  get  the  number. 

Senator  Bennett.  I  find  it  inconceivable  that  the  alarm  would  go 
off  and  the  unit  would  be  on  alert,  and  in  their  MOPP  gear  for 
hours,  and  then  the  gear  would  be  collected  and  disposed  of  and 
there  would  be  no  record  of  the  incident  on  the  ground  that  it 
wasn't  verified.  That's  incredible  to  me. 

Dr.  Prociv.  Let  me  try  to  explain  that,  also.  Typically,  the  gear 
is  not  changed  after  an  alarm. 

Senator  Bennett.  I  understand  that. 

Dr.  Prociv.  Typically,  the  gear  is  changed  after  a  certain  number 
of  days  of  wear  life.  For  instance,  the  British  suit  has  a  5-day  wear 
life.  On  the  fifth  day,  everybody  changes  out  of  the  suit  and  gets 
a  new  one.  I'd  have  to  look  into  each  of  these  cases  and  see  why 
those  change-outs  were  made.  I'm  not  sure  I  understand  that,  other 
than  by  coincidence,  it  may  have  hit  that  fifth  day. 


36 

Senator  Bennett.  I  can  understand  that  it  would  be  by  coinci- 
dence. But  the  Chairman  asked  the  question,  how  many  times  did 
the  alarms  go  off,  because  the  testimony  here  has  said  that  every 
single  time  that  the  alarm  went  off,  it  was  because  of  some 
nonchemical  reason.  It  was  a  false  alarm.  It  was  in  reaction  to  die- 
sel  fuel  in  the  air.  It  was  testing.  In  every  single  instance,  the  testi- 
mony is  the  alarm  was  not  an  alarm  of  actual  chemical  presence. 
His  question  was,  how  many  times  did  we  have  those  nonchemical 
stimuli  creating  an  alarm  going  off?  I  think  that's  an  answer  we 
ought  to  get  an  approximation  for. 

The  second  question  that  I'm  asking  is,  how  many  times  was 
there  a  replacement  of  the  gear  following  the  alarm  going  off?  If 
you  say  it  only  happened  twice  and  in  both  cases,  the  5  days  were 
up,  I'll  accept  that.  But  I  want  to  know  how  many  times  it  actually 
happened,  whether  or  not  we  can  put  it  down  to  coincidence  of  the 
5  days  being  up,  or  if  somebody  on  the  ground  came  to  the  conclu- 
sion that  there  was  in  fact  contamination  there  and  the  gear  had 
to  be  replaced  as  a  safety  measure  for  his  troops.  I  can  see  a  con- 
scientious commander  making  that  decision  and  having  a  record  of 
it  somewhere.  I  want  to  know  if,  indeed,  that  happened. 

Finally,  just  as  I  was  browsing  through  here,  I'd  point  out  to  you 
on  page  77,  there  is  another  case  of  an  M256  giving  a  positive  read- 
ing. William  Brady,  Battalion  Logistics  NCO  with  the  217th  Main- 
tenance Battalion. 

Deafening  sound,  a  flash  of  light,  everything  shook.  That  does 
not  sound  like  a  sonic  boom  to  me.  He  remembered  the  chemical 
litmus  paper  turning  red  and  a  positive  reading  from  an  M256  kit. 
His  nose  began  to  run.  He  smelled  and  tasted  sulfur  and  he  began 
coughing  up  blood  a  couple  of  days  after  the  attack. 

Once  again,  you  may  have  an  explanation  for  the  M256  working, 
but  I  come  back  to  the  earlier  statement  that  there  is  never  a  veri- 
fied case. 

We  do  have  a  pattern  here  of  alarms  going  off  and  now  individ- 
ual reports  of  even  the  M256  being  activated.  I  don't  think  there's 
a  lot  of  credibility,  unless  you've  got  an  answer  for  every  one  of 
these,  for  the  statement  that  there  was  no  presence  of  these  things. 
To  a  layman,  it  just  seems  overwhelming  that  there's  got  to  be  a 
presumption  of  presence  if  these  kinds  of  things  kept  happening. 

Dr.  Prociv.  Our  conclusions  are  also  based  on  not  just  the 
alarms.  It's  also  the  absence  of  the  types  of  symptoms  that  we  ex- 
pect to  see  from  nerve  agents.  We  talked  to  our  allies.  We  have  not 
seen  the  symptoms  there. 

Typically,  an  attack  will  cause  a  lot  of  people  to  get  exposed.  So 
I  will  take  these  questions  for  the  record,  however,  sir,  and  I  will 
provide  you  the  answers  to  those. 

Senator  Bennett.  Let  me  pursue  what  you  just  said  because  it 
fits  with  the  line  that  I  was  on  earlier. 

You  say,  typically,  we  can  expect.  Let's  hold  the  possibility  that 
these  particular  agents  were  not  typical.  Let's  hold  the  possibility 
that,  indeed,  something  happened  out  there  that  doesn't  meet  the 
typical  norm.  Back  to  my  earlier  question  to  the  Secretary — isn't 
there  a  possibility  that  the  confirmation  pattern  is  flawed? 

You  say,  we  can't  get  confirmation  of  it.  Maybe  we're  dealing 
with   something  new  here  that  we  weren't  previously  thinking 


37 

about  that  can  produce  a  different  kind  of  reaction  than  we  were 
expecting.  With  that  thought  in  mind,  go  back  and  review  every- 
thing we  ve  talked  about.  Our  confirmation  pattern  doesn't  confirm. 

I'm  willing  to  accept  that.  I  don't  think  you're  sitting  here  lying 
to  me  on  that  issue.  I'll  accept  that  you've  done  the  confirmation 
and  the  confirmation  doesn't  confirm.  But  how  do  I  explain  all  of 
the  people  with  Gulf  War  Syndrome.  Just  because  it  doesn't  fit  the 
tvpical  pattern  does  not  mean  it  didn't  happen.  Start  thinking  in 
those  terms  and  maybe  this  whole  thing  will  be  a  little  different. 

I  thank  the  Chair. 

The  Chairman.  I  think,  Senator  Bennett,  that  that's  an  enor- 
mously constructive  point  you've  just  made. 

We  know  that  Saddam  Hussein  was  experimenting  with  mixing 
up  these  cocktails,  these  so-called  chemical  cocktails  and  maybe 
mixing  biologicals  in  with  the  chemical  cocktails.  We  don't  know 
what  he  was  finally  doing.  We  just  know  at  the  end  of  the  war, 
even  though  we  bombed  the  daylights  out  of  every  storage  place  we 
knew  about,  and  I  think  in  the  process  threw  a  lot  of  this  stuff  up 
in  the  air,  which  then  blew  down  over  our  troops,  that  even  after 
all  the  bombing,  the  massive  bombing,  he  still  had  a  huge  stockpile 
of  this  stuff.  That's  what  the  U.N.  inspectors  found.  And  we're  still 
destroying  it,  still  getting  rid  of  it.  It's  not  easy  to  get  rid  of 

One  of  the  great  ironies  is  that  we  helped  put  it  together  because 
we  sent  him  the  materials  in  the  beginning  to  get  him  going,  with 
these  licenses  that  were  approved  by  our  own  Government  to  send 
the  biological  specimens  and  so  forth. 

But  I  think  Senator  Bennett  is  onto  something.  I  think  we  may 
in  fact  be  dealing  with  something  here  where,  when  he  was  threat- 
ening us  with  these  kinds  of  doomsday  weapons  and  other  things, 
that  ne  may  have  been  experimenting  with  weapons  that  were  dif- 
ferent and  outside  the  norm,  and  that  we  were  not  necessarily 
ready  to  deal  with  that. 

I  tnink,  quite  frankly,  it's  a  stunning  statement.  I  know  you  may 
not  think  about  it  that  way,  when  you  say  that  when  these  alarms 
were  going  off  all  the  time,  it's  probably  because  the  alarms  were 
faulty  or  that  they  were  registering  the  wrong  things. 

To  the  people  out  in  the  real  world  that  go  to  work  everyday  and 
pay  the  bills  for  the  defense  establishment  and  everything  else, 
that  will  have  them  marching  on  Washington,  if  they  think  that 
what  we  were  doing  is  buying  alarm  systems  to  protect  their  sons 
and  daughters  that  basically  weren't  any  good. 

And  so,  yes,  they  kept  going  off  all  the  time,  but  they  were  going 
off  for  the  wrong  reasons. 

That's  like  asking  people  to  believe  something  that's  just  so  un- 
believable, that  to  say  it,  makes  a  person  sound  like  a  fool,  I  think 
to  a  citizen. 

Senator  Bennett.  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  Yes. 

Senator  Bennett.  Could  I  comment  on  that  because  you've  trig- 
gered a  thought  here  that  I'd  like  to  share  with  the  Department  of 
Defense. 

We're  in  a  Catch-22.  If  we  say,  on  the  one  hand,  the  alarms 
going  off  in  every  instance  was  due  to  malfunction  or  misreading 
or  diesel  oil,  or  whatever,  and  then  we  turn  around  and  say,  on  the 


38 

other  hand,  we  have  absolutely  no  confirmation  from  anywhere 
that  these  agents  were  present. 

It's  the  second  conclusion  that's  driving  the  first.  If  you  say,  just 
one  alarm  functioned  properly,  and  what  are  the  statistical  chances 
that  that's  true,  just  one  of  these  M256  readings  was  accurate, 
then  we  do  have  confirmation. 

You've  got  yourself  into  a  logic  box  here.  If  you  say  they  all 
failed,  the  M256  all  came  from  people  who  didn't  understand  what 
they  were  doing.  We've  checked  everyone  of  them.  You  then  can 
validate,  no,  there's  no  confirmation. 

But  the  overwhelming  inference  on  the  part,  again,  of  somebody 
looking  at  it  from  the  outside  who's  not  involved,  is  that  it  is  the 
second  conclusion  that  is  driving  the  first  and  it  becomes  a  self-ful- 
filling prophecy  once  you  get  there. 

You  can't  prove  a  negative,  but  just  think  about  it  for  just  a 
minute  logically  and  use  the  phrase,  fuzzy  logic,  that  allows  you  to 
go  with  probabilities,  even  if  you  can't  pin  it  down.  Is  it  really  log- 
ical to  assume  that  every  single  one  of  those  events  was  faulty? 

Mr.  DORN.  Senator,  let  me — perhaps  Dr.  Prociv  can  address  an- 
other dilemma  here  which  has  to  do  with  the  way  one  designs  the 
systems  and  the  way  one  sets  them  so  that  one  has  the  maximum 
possible  warning. 

It  is  a  system  which,  unfortunately,  is  likely  to  yield  some  false 
alarms.  But  perhaps  we  can  discuss  that  technology  because  it  does 
raise  an  interesting  question  about  how  much  advanced  warning 
we  want  in  these  circumstances  and  it  may  guide  the  way  in  which 
this  technology  is  refined  in  the  future. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  before  we  get  off  into  a  long,  technical  dis- 
course that  eats  up  more  time,  I  want  to  stay  on  the  point  that  he's 
just  raised.  If  you  can  invent  a  better  system,  I'll  all  for  it.  Go  and 
do  it.  If  you  want  the  money,  I'll  vote  for  the  money  to  do  it. 

I'm  concerned  about  a  lot  of  sick  people  right  now  because  the 
last  system  didn't  work  right  and  we're  having  a  very  hard  time, 
I  still  think,  getting  an  honest  understanding  of  what  happened. 

I  think  Senator  Bennett  is  exactly  right,  that  it's  the  second  con- 
clusion that  in  a  sense  is  driving  the  first  conclusion,  that  backs 
you  into  the  notion  that  you've  come  in  here  with  a  truly  unbeliev- 
able assertion  that  every  single  one  of  these  alarms  going  off  was 
faulty  and  didn't  mean  anything. 

I  think  that  that's  clearly  not  the  case  and  I  would  hope  at  the 
end  of  the  day,  not  iust  today,  but  at  the  end  of  this,  you  wouldn't 
force  yourself  into  believing  something  that  is  patently  unbeliev- 
able. 

But  there's  a  more  serious  and  sinister  part  of  it.  And  that  is 
that  that  kind  of  logic  also  drives  the  effort  to  get  to  the  bottom 
of  the  medical  problems  because  if  you're  working  off  the  premise 
that  it  can't  be  chemical  exposure  or  biological  weapons  exposure, 
then  you  don't  aim  the  bulk  of  your  medical  research  effort  with 
real  urgency  into  that  area  of  exposure. 

You  look  at  other  things.  You  can  spend  a  long  time  looking  at 
everything  else  that  it  might  be.  Meanwhile,  you've  got  very  sick 
people  that  in  many  instances,  are  getting  sicker.  In  other  words, 
their  sickness  isn't  standing  still.  Their  sickness  in  many  cases  is 
progressive. 


39 

The  thing  that  alarms  me  the  most  right  now  is  that  by,  in  a 
sense,  ruling  out  the  notion  that  it  could  be  chemical  and  biological 
exposure  causing  a  lot  of  this  difficulty,  maybe  in  a  mixture  with 
the  pretreatment  pills  and  so  forth,  we  are  losing  very  valuable 
time  and  causing  perhaps  an  immense  amount  of  grief. 

If  you've  got  a  biological  issue  working  in  all  of  this,  you  may 
have  even  a  bigger  threat  on  your  hands  than  we're  accustomed  to 
even  thinking  about.  And  so,  that  kind  of  logic  or  illogic,  in  this 
case,  I  think  is  what  people  can't  accept  who  look  at  this. 

And  to  your  question,  how  many  times  did  the  alarms  go  off,  I 
can  assert  to  you  right  now,  based  on  just  the  first  person  accounts 
that  we  have  nad,  with  discussions  with  people  who  have  come  for- 
ward, for  whom  we  have  names,  places,  times,  and  so  forth,  that 
there  would  be  thousands  of  events  of  alarms  going  off.  Would  any 
of  you  dispute  that? 

You  would  not  dispute  that. 

Dr.  Prociv.  We  have  no  data. 

Senator  Bennett.  That  goes  back  to  my  question — what  would 
you  be  surprised  if  it  were  fewer  than?  Does  1,000  strike  you  as 
much  too  high?  You  say  you  have  no  data,  but  you  obviously 

Dr.  Prociv.  I  think  tnat  I  would  agree  to  per-alarm,  perhaps  2 
to  3  a  day.  I  could  see  that  happening. 

The  CHAffiMAN.  How  many  alarms  were  out  there? 

Dr.  Prociv.  We  had  14,000  alarms  out  there. 

The  Chairman.  So  14,000  alarms  going  off  3  times  a  day. 

Dr.  Prociv.  Big  number. 

The  Chairman.  That's  a  pretty  big  number. 

Senator  Bennett.  Yes.  Let  me  pursue  another  aspect  of  the 
thought  that  I'm  laying  down  here,  that  just  because  it  doesn't  fit 
the  norm  doesn't  mean  that  it  didn't  happen. 

As  I  understood,  Mr.  Secretary,  your  comments  were  that  you 
found  no  evidence  of  the  presence  of  these  weapons,  let  alone  the 
trace  of  the  gases  or  agents,  but  no  evidence  of  the  presence  of 
these  weapons  in  the  theater.  Is  that  correct? 

Mr.  DORN.  That  is  correct. 

Senator  Bennett.  OK  I  beheve,  from  the  first-person  reports 
contained  in  this  document,  that  most  of  the  instances  reported 
were  not  in  the  theater.  They  were  behind  the  lines  back  in  the 
maintenance  area,  subject  to  SCUD  attacks  that  were  later  dis- 
missed as  sonic  booms  and  not,  in  fact,  SCUD  attacks  in  some 
cases,  but  not  necessarily  in  the  theater  where  the  tank  battle  and 
those  other  things  took  place.  Is  that  correct? 

Mr.  DoRN.  Those  portions  of  southern  Iraq  and  Kuwait  that  con- 
stituted the  battlefield.  So  you  are  correct  in  the  way  we've  defined 
the  Kuwait  theater  of  operations.  However,  I  believe  that  state- 
ment is  intended  to  cover,  and  I  will  verify  it,  but  I  believe  that 
is  intended  to  cover  everything  that  we  found  on  the  battlefields, 
short  of  a  certain  parallel  into  Iraq. 

Now  I  will  confirm  that. 

Senator  Bennett.  You  see  where  I'm  going. 

Mr.  DoRN.  It  obviously  would  be  very  important 

Senator  Bennett.  Yes. 

Mr.  DoRN.  — If  this  were  cleverly  worded  to  obscure  that  point. 
It  is  my  sincere  hope  that  it  has  not  obscured  that  important  point. 


40 

The  Chairman.  We  have  more  than  a  hope,  though. 

Senator  Bennett.  I  don't  accuse  anybody  of  cleverly  wording  it 
to  obscure  it.  But  I  have  had  enough  dealings  with  some  military 
minds,  I  won't  say  all,  by  any  means,  to  suggest  that  it  would 
never  occur  to  them  to  go  beyond  the  battlefield  as  to  what  the  the- 
ater would  be. 

We  are  dealing  now,  if  we  accept  these  first-person  witnesses  at 
face  value,  with  people  who  are  behind  the  lines,  who  are  subjected 
to  SCUD  attacks  launched  from  areas  we  know  not  where.  That  is 
prima  facie  obvious  because  if  we  knew  where  the  SCUD's  were, 
we  would  have  destroyed  them.  We  were  out  looking  for  them.  That 
was  the  number-one  priority  of  the  war,  as  far  as  our  relationship 
with  the  Israelis  was  concerned. 

These  are  attacks  being  launched  from  some  area  that  we  may 
very  well  have  never  reconnoitered  that  took  place  in  an  area  out- 
side of  the  theater.  So  that  the  information  that  you  gave  us  here, 
very  conceivably,  could  be  exactly  correct  and  still  have  missed  the 
point. 

Mr.  DORN.  I  will  double  check  the  information.  However,  as  you 
know,  a  number  of  these  SCUD's  landed  in  populated  areas  or  were 
destroyed  over  populated  areas.  We  know  that  when  they  were  de- 
stroyed, they  sometimes  spewed  forth  rocket  fiiel  and  lots  of  other 
debris.  I  have  seen  no  information  suggesting  that  the  debris  con- 
tained evidence  of  a  chemical  or  a  biological  agent. 

I  will  double  check  that  information  for  you,  sir. 

Senator  Bennett.  I  think  it  would  be  a  useful  exercise. 

The  other  comment  I  would  make 

Mr.  Dorn.  Dr.  Kriese  has  a  comment  on  that. 

Dr.  Kriese.  May  I  comment,  sir? 

Senator  Bennett.  Surely. 

Dr.  Kriese.  My  understanding  is  that,  after  every  SCUD  attack, 
we  checked  for  CW  and  none  was  found.  That  was  of  great  concern 
to  our  forces. 

I  think  you  brought  up  a  very  important  point  as  you  talk  about 
delivery  of  agents.  You  referred  to  an  incident  on  January  19,  or 
perhaps  January  20,  this  is  event  3  on  page  64. 

This  area,  we  believe,  was  outside  the  range  of  any  Iraqi  delivery 
systems,  except  for  SCUD's.  And  on  January  20,  there  were  four 
SCUD's  that  landed  near  Al-Jubayl,  two  of  them  about  35  miles 
away  and  two  about  58  miles  away. 

I  think  as  we  discuss  chemical  agents,  and  I  don't  want  to  give 
any  appearance  that  I'm  trying  to  rule  something  out  or  in  circular 
logic,  but,  in  my  mind,  one  of  the  issues  is  the  question  of  how 
those  agents  were  inplaced,  how  they  got  there. 

As  we  look  at  the  installations  that  were  deep  behind  the  lines, 
like  Al-Jubayl,  SCUD  is  the  only  way  to  get  there.  I'm  not  saying 
that  they're  not  there  because  I  don't  know  how  else  to  explain 
them.  But  I  think  delivery  is  a  very  important  issue  that  we've 
looked  at  as  we've  tried  to  make  an  assessment  of  the  use  of  CW 
and  BW  weapons. 

We've  also  asked  ourselves  questions  about  if  there  are  low  levels 
of  CW  or  BW,  why  do  we  never  find  high  levels?  Distribution  of 
material  is  a  very  difficult  problem.  Usually,  you  start  from  a  small 
canister  and  release  it.  Close  to  the  canister,  you  have  high  levels 


41 

of  CW  or  BW  agents.  Further  away,  you  find  low  levels.  So  this  is, 
again,  a  puzzle  to  us.  And  I  don't  want  to  say  that  I'm  ruling  any- 
thing out. 

Senator  Bennett.  Yes. 

Dr.  Kreese.  But  as  we  try  to  understand  how  the  Iraqis  may 
have  used  CW  or  BW  agents,  these  are  things  that  we  try  to  ad- 
dress. 

Senator  Bennett.  And  I  think  it's  appropriate  that  you  try  to  ad- 
dress them.  I  think  that  that's  a  legitimate  question. 

I  go  back  to  my  earlier  comment  that  maybe  we're  dealing  with 
something  here  that  does  not  fit  our  expectations  because  we're 
dealing  with  an  individual  who  has  pursued  this  weaponry  far  be- 
yond the  levels  that  we  have,  I  think,  in  our  own  arsenal.  We've 
decided  to  pull  back  from  this  a  long  time  ago  and  he  has  decided 
to  go  forward. 

Dr.  Kreese.  Yes,  sir,  and  I  would  add  that,  certainly,  one  of  the 
things  that  the  intelligence  community  worries  about  a  lot  is  the 
question  of  technological  surprise.  So,  across  the  board,  we  look  at 
unexpected  developments  in  technologies  that  may  be  a  threat  to 
U.S.  forces  or  the  forces  of  our  allies. 

This  is  something  that  we've  looked  for  and,  again,  I  can't  say 
that  it's  not  there  because  we  haven't  seen  it,  but  we  certainly  pur- 
sue those  leads  whenever  we  have  them. 

Senator  Bennett.  I  have  to  leave.  I  just  want  to  conclude  with 
an  experience  totally  unrelated  in  specifics,  but  I  think  quite  in- 
structive in  its  overall  message  that  I  had  in  my  formative  years 
as  a  very  young  man. 

It  had  nothing  to  do  with  war,  fortunately.  But  we  were  trying 
to  sell  tickets  to  a  concert.  The  public  relations  firm  hired  to  help 
us  to  do  this  sent  their  expert  into  the  area  where  I  was  operating. 
He  was  appalled  to  find  out  that  I  was  doing  all  kinds  of  things 
he  didn't  want  me  to  do. 

This  happened  in  the  British  Isles. 

He  called  his  superior  in  London  and  he  reported  to  his  superior 
all  of  the  things  that  I  was  doing  that  were  contrary  to  the  wishes 
of  this  internationally  known  PR  firm.  The  conversation  is  still 
burned  in  my  mind  and  the  lesson  that  I  learned  is  the  one  that 
I  want  to  share  with  you. 

He  said,  "Yes,  dear,  I  told  him  that."  His  superior  was  a  woman, 
so  he  could  use  that  terminology  in  the  days  before  political  cor- 
rectness. 

He  said,  "Yes,  dear,  we  covered  that.  Yes,  dear,  we  have  handled 
that.  Yes,  we  have  done  that.  That's  right.  Yes,  we've  covered  all 
those  bases.  Everything  is  fine.  There's  just  one  problem — no  tick- 
ets have  been  sold." 

OK,  we  can  get  all  of  the  explanations.  We  can  get  all  of  the  ex- 
amination. There's  just  one  problem — we  have  a  batch  of  people  for 
whom  we  cannot  give  any  explanations  in  terms  of  their  medical 
circumstance.  Maybe  the  old  pattern  he  was  describing  in  that  cir- 
cumstance and  as  you  are  describing  in  here,  has  got  to  be  aban- 
doned and  we've  got  to  do  something  different. 

That's  what  I  was  trying  to  do  when  I  was  trying  to  sell  tickets 
to  the  concert  and  offending  people  because  I  was  doing  things  dif- 


42 

ferently  than  they  thought  they  should  be  done  by  the  classic  pat- 
tern. 

My  only  defense  for  my  actions  was  but  no  tickets  are  being  sold 
doing  it  your  way.  My  only  comment  here  is  no  answers  are  being 
found  as  to  where  this  body  of  people  with  serious  medical  prob- 
lems came  from.  And  that's  what  keeps  driving  me  and  I  know 
keeps  driving  the  Chairman  and  will  keep  driving  this  issue  until 
we  either  fill  the  hall,  as  I  can  say  proudly  we  did  on  the  occasion 
of  the  concert,  by  solving  the  problem,  or  come  up  with  an  expla- 
nation that  is  so  scientifically  iron-clad,  that  everybody  can  buy  it. 

Saying  that  the  explosions  were  all  sonic  booms  and  the  alarms 
went  off,  all  in  malfunction  or  testing,  and  that  all  of  the  illness 
comes  from  some  other  source  is  simply  not  going  to  cut  it  in  the 
reality  of  what  we've  got  here,  what  we  have  to  deal  with.  There 
is  the  reality  of  the  people  who  have  these  problems  and  that  re- 
ality is  not  going  to  go  away. 

Mr.  DoRN.  Senator  Bennett,  I  want  to  emphasize  again  that  we 
are  considering  all  the  plausible  possibilities,  including  the  possibil- 
ity of  exposure  to  some  type  of  chemical  or  biological  agent. 

Senator  Bennett.  I'm  delighted  to  have  you  say  that  last  sen- 
tence because  I  had  not  heard  it  before  now  and  I  may  have  missed 
it.  But  I'm  glad  to  hear  it  before  I  have  to  leave  and  I  congratulate 
you  for  making  that  clear  commitment,  to  consider  this  as  a  real 
possibility,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  there  are  no  confirmations,  in 
spite  of  the  fact,  et  cetera. 

That,  I  think,  is  a  major  commitment  on  behalf  of  the  Defense 
Department. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you  very  much.  Senator  Bennett. 

I  think  logic,  which  is  what  Senator  Bennett  is  trying  to  apply 
here,  and  properly  so,  is  maybe  the  quickest  way  to  an  answer  be- 
cause of  the  problems  that  we've  been  discussing  this  morning. 

I  want  to  read  into  the  record  the  chemical  warfare  agents  which 
survived  the  Allied  bombing — these  are  the  chemical  weapons  that 
Saddam  Hussein  had  squirrelled  away  and  then  they  were  picked 
up  to  be  destroyed  after  the  war  by  the  inspectors  that  went  in. 

Now  listen  to  this.  This  is  just  what  we  got  after  all  the  bombing. 
We  went  in  and,  as  a  priority  target,  tried  to  knock  out  a  lot  of 
these  weapons  storage  places  and  weapons  production  places.  So, 
presumably,  we  got  rid  of  most  of  it  in  the  bombing  runs.  But  this 
was  what  was  left  after  all  the  bombing. 

Now  just  think  about  this  and  think  about  it  logically — 13,000 
155-millimeter  shells  loaded  with  mustard  gas;  6,200  rockets  load- 
ed with  nerve  agent;  800  nerve  agent  aerial  bombs;  28  SCUD  war- 
heads loaded  with  Sarin;  75  tons  of  nerve  agent  Sarin;  60  to  70 
tons  of  the  nerve  agent  Tabun;  and  250  tons  of  mustard  gas  and 
stocks  of  thiodiglycol,  a  precursor  chemical  for  mustard  gas. 

Again,  just  think  about  this,  we  went  in  with  these  saturation 
bombing  raids.  We  tried  to  hit  their  weapons  production  facilities 
and  knock  them  out.  Presumably,  we  did  knock  a  lot  of  them  out. 
A  lot  of  what  they  had  to  start  with  presumably  went  up  in  smoke 
and,  unfortunately,  I  think  a  lot  of  it  drifted  down  over  our  people 
and  that's  part  of  why  these  alarms  were  going  off. 


43 

According  to  the  testimony  here,  if  there  were  14,000  going  off 
3  times  a  dav,  there's  an  awful  lot  of  something  going  on.  But  this 
is  what  was  left  after  the  war  that  we  managed  to  find. 

Knowing  Saddam  Hussein,  he  may  have  more  than  this 
squirrelled  away  some  other  place  we  haven't  even  found.  But  leav- 
ing that  aside,  this  is  a  tremendous  stockpile  of  these  kinds  of 
weapons  to  have  at  the  end  of  the  war. 

Now  you  have  to  say  to  yourself,  and  especially  when  we're  deal- 
ing with  sick  veterans  and  so  forth,  who  feel  that  they  were  ex- 
posed to  these  items,  is  it  conceivable  that  Saddam  Hussein,  with 
all  of  this  stockpile — I  mean,  he  didn't  have  these  things  by  acci- 
dent, he  built  these  with  a  very  deliberate  design  to  have  all  of 
these  things — is  it  conceivable  that  in  the  course  of  the  war,  he  or 
his  field  commanders,  and  I  understand  some  of  his  front-line  field 
commanders  had  authority  to  do  certain  things  in  the  war,  depend- 
ing upon  how  the  war  went.  Is  it  conceivable  that  not  a  single  one 
of  these  shells  or  weapons  was  ever  fired?  Is  that  conceivable? 
Maybe  it's  conceivable.  I  think  it's  very,  very  unlikely.  That  leaves 
apart  the  question  of  blowing  these  things  up  with  our  own  bomb- 
ing raids  and  dispersing  it  in  that  fashion.  And  the  fact  that  he 
had  a  history  of  doing  it  in  the  past. 

But  what's  even  more  powerful,  I  think,  when  you  apply  the 
logic,  if  you  take  the  symptoms,  the  health  symptoms  that  would 
come,  and  this  runs  counter  to  something  that  was  said  earlier  by 
one  of  the  witnesses,  we  spent  a  lot  of  time  overlaying  symptoms 
to  exposure  to  what  kind  of  items  could  create  these  kinds  of  symp- 
toms and  what  kinds  of  biological  items  and  chemical  weapons  do 
we  know  that  he  had  and  was  developing  that  could  create,  if  a 
service  person  was  exposed  to  them,  a  pattern  of  medical  difficulty 
that  would  fit  that  kind  of  exposure. 

We  find  a  very  high  correlation  between  the  kinds  of  sickness 
and  medical  symptoms  and  exposure  to  chemical  and/or  biological 
weapons.  In  fact,  we  can't  find  anything  else  that  correlates  highly. 
This  is  the  one  thing  that  fits. 

And  so,  after  a  while,  the  pattern  is  so  strong,  that  you  look  at 
it  and  you  say,  why  is  it  that  everybody  else  that's  looking  at  this, 
including  a  lot  of  outside  medical  people  who  are  trying  to  deal 
with  sick  veterans,  can  see  these  patterns  and  the  Defense  Depart- 
ment has  this  mental  attitude  that  says,  it  couldn't  be  in  this  area 
and  therefore,  we  don't  really  believe  that's  the  problem  because  we 
can't  verify  it,  so  we're  assuming  the  problem  is  somewhere  outside 
those  parameters. 

Now,  granted,  you've  just  said  in  response  to  Senator  Bennett  at 
the  end  of  a  long  morning  that  you're  locking  at  the  chemical  and 
biological  issues  as  well.  But  your  whole  statement  is  built  around 
a  central  supposition  and  belief  that  there  was  no  chemical  and  bi- 
ological problem  here. 

Mr.  DoRN.  No,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  It  is  not? 

Mr.  DoRN.  You  asked  what  I  thought  was  the  Committee's  inter- 
est in  the  Export  Administration  Act  and  the  possibly  related  ques- 
tion of  whether  or  not  Saddam  Hussein  used  materials  provided 
under  the  old  Export  Administration  Act  against  us.  And  my  state- 
ment was  that  we  find  no  evidence  that  the  weapons  were  used. 


44 

I've  said  several  times  during  this  hearing  that  we  are  consider- 
ing a  wide  range,  all  the  possible  explanations,  including  the  possi- 
bility of  some  type  of  exposure  to  chemical  agents.  There  are  two 
issues  here.  One  is  what  our  adversary  may  have  used.  The  other 
question  is  what  may  have  been  available  or  what  may  have  been 
present  in  the  theater  for  other  reasons. 

The  Chairman.  Isn't  there  a  third  category?  Isn't  there  a  poten- 
tial, unintentional  way  in  which  it  could  be  used  if  we  went  in  and 
bombed  these  facilities  and  these  got  up  into  the  air 

Mr.  DoRN.  That  has  been  looked  at. 

The  Chairman.  — ^At  different  levels  of  air  currents  and  it  came 
down  over  our  troops.  That  would  be  a  way  in  which  he  would  not 
have  made  an  offensive  strike.  We  would  clearly  not  have  intended 
for  that  to  happen.  But  isn't  that  another  possibility? 

Mr.  Dorn.  That  is  clearly  a  possibility.  May  we  speak  briefly  to 
that? 

The  Chairman.  Yes,  please.  We  have  an  extensive  aspect  of  that 
in  our  report,  as  I'm  sure  you  know.  Gro  ahead. 

Dr.  Kriese.  I  think  one  of  the  questions  that  comes  up  when  you 
look  at  this  as  a  potential  cause  for  the  illnesses  is  the  question  of 
where  are  the  very  sick  people? 

The  high  concentrations  that  would  have  resulted  locally  from  at- 
tacking facilities,  I  think  possibly  could  have  caused  very  serious 
injuries  near  the  places  that  were  bombed. 

The  Chairman.  You're  talking  now  about  the  Iraqis  themselves? 

Dr.  Kriese.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  trust  their  data? 

Dr.  Kriese.  We  saw  no  evidence  as  we  were  reviewing  all  the  im- 
agery that  we  had  available  for  bomb  damage  assessment  of  any 
local  fatalities  that  we  could  attribute  to  release  of  chemicals  or  bi- 
ological agents. 

As  we  attacked  facilities,  sir,  we  went  back  and  very  carefully 
evaluated  the  amount  of  damage  that  we  achieved  with  our  attacks 
and  have  extensive  imagery  from  gun  cameras  and  other  resources 
that  we  had  in  the  area  and  we  found  no  evidence  of  the  deaths 
that  you  might  anticipate  from  local  releases  of  large  amounts  of 
material. 

As  the  U.N.  has  inspected  some  of  the  areas  that  we  bombed 
after  the  war  and,  again,  this  does  not  provide  data  on  what  was 
there  at  the  time  we  bombed,  but  certainly  later,  some  of  the  facili- 
ties turned  out  to  be  empty.  The  Iraqis  dispersed  a  lot  of  their  mu- 
nitions. That's  why  it  was  recovered  after  the  war.  They  were  not 
necessarily  in  the  places  that  we  attacked. 

As  part  of  our  planning,  we  did  studies  of  impact  of  releases. 
We've  gone  back  afterwards  taking  weather  data  from  the  Air 
Force  and  other  meteorological  conditions  and  have  made  estimates 
about  how  far  plumes  from  released  material  might  have  impacted 
people.  For  the  southern  most  facilities  that  we  attacked,  I  believe 
that  the  plume  extends  out,  at  most,  10  or  12  kilometers  for  inca- 
pacitating roughly  5  percent  of  unprotected  people. 

And  again 

The  Chairman.  See,  the  problem  with  that  is  when  you  say  inca- 
pacitating unprotected  people,  first  of  all,  we're  talking  about  some- 
thing that  we  don't  have  a  lot  of  good  research  on,  obviously. 


46 

But  if  you're  getting  these  low-level  exposures — let's  say  you're 
an  American  service  person  out  there  and  you're  getting  these  re- 
peated low-level  exposures  and  the  alarms  keep  going  on,  going  off 
all  the  time.  And  we're  sajdng,  well,  that's  just  because  they're 
faulty  alarms. 

It's  even  an  embarrassing  assertion  because  I  think  it's  so  incred- 
ible and  unbelievable.  But  this  stuff  is  wafting  down  through  there 
and  that's  why  the  alarms  are  going  off,  and  people  are  getting  ex- 
posed to  it. 

Now,  I  don't  know  that  we  know  enough  today  as  to  what  kinds 
of  exposure  levels  at  lower  levels,  but  on  a  chronic  basis  and  over 
a  period  of  time,  are  going  to  make  somebody  sick,  make  you  sick, 
make  your  son  sick.  Maybe  some  person  in  the  unit  is  going  to  get 
sicker  a  lot  faster  and  more  seriously  than  the  next  person  in  the 
unit  who  either  has  a  different  kind  of  a  system  or  the  exposure, 
for  one  reason  or  another,  isn't  quite  as  severe  for  that  person. 

But,  again,  I  find  this  remarkable  blind  spot  that's  right  in  the 
center  of  the  screen  here  where  you've  got  all  of  the  surrounding 
information,  most  significantly  being  all  the  sick  veterans  who  keep 
coming  forward. 

I  think  until  somebody — and  maybe  you've  done  this,  I  hope  so 
and  if  you  haven't,  we're  going  to  help  you  do  it.  You  need  to  talk 
to  some  of  the  sick  spouses,  whose  hair  is  falling  out,  who  can't 
sleep,  whose  reproductive  cycle  is  not  working  properly.  They're 
showing  a  lot  of  the  same  physical  symptoms  that  their  husbands 
are  showing,  who  were  the  veterans,  although  we  have  women  vet- 
erans, too,  who  have  these  problems. 

I  don't  know  where  the  breakdown  is  coming  from  because  we 
have  this  enlarging  body  of  sick  people  out  there  who  something 
happened  to.  They  weren't  sick  before  they  went  to  the  Gulf.  Some- 
thing happened  to  them  there  and  now  they're  back  and  now 
they're  sick.  Can  anybody  tell  me  what  happened  to  them?  You're 
convinced,  by  and  large,  at  least  that's  the  testimony  and  that's  the 
official  Defense  Department  line,  that  it  was  not  exposure  to  chemi- 
cal and  biological  weapons. 

I  think  part  of  it  is  due  to  that  and  we're  putting  a  much  strong- 
er case  on  the  table  than  you  are.  But  if  it  isn't  that,  after  all  this 
period  of  time,  and  as  important  as  this  issue  is,  what  is  causing 
it? 

Dr.  Kriese.  Sir,  if  I  can  just  comment  for  a  minute? 

I  don't  think  the  Defense  Department  is  saying  that  it  was  not, 
the  Gulf  War  Syndrome  was  not  due  to  CW  and  BW. 

The  Chairman.  Chemical  Warfare  and  Biological  Warfare  agents. 

Dr.  Kriese.  Yes,  sir.  I  think  the  Defense  Department  is  not  tak- 
ing that  stance. 

The  Chairman  So  you're  not  saying  that  that's  not  the  cause. 

Dr.  Kriese.  That's  right. 

The  Chairman.  That  could  be  the  cause. 

Dr.  Kriese.  Yes,  sir.  I  think  Dr.  Dom  said  that  very,  I  hope, 
clearly  earlier. 

I  think  he  came  to  people  for  advice  on  what  might  be  causes  as 
he  ran  down  the  list  of  the  possibilities.  He  asked  the  Defense  In- 
telligence Agency  for  our  assessment  of  use  of  CW  and  BW. 

As  I  heard  him  say,  thank  you  very  much,  it's  still  on  my  hst. 


46 

The  Chairman.  What  do  you  think  is  causing  it?  What's  causing 
all  these  veterans  and  their  families  to  get  sick?  What's  your  best 
judgment? 

Dr.  Kriese.  Speaking  totally  as  a  nonexpert,  I  think  that 

The  Chairman.  I  hope  you're  an  expert  because  the  Defense  De- 
partment shouldn't  bring  you  up  here  if  you're  not  something  of  an 
expert. 

Mr.  DORN.  But  not  in  health. 

Dr.  Kriese.  Sir,  I'm  not  an  expert  on  the  whole  range  of  medical 
issues  that  might  be  involved  in  this  question. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  take  us  as  far  as  your  expertise  can  take 
us,  then. 

Dr.  Kriese.  I  think  we're  learning  about  dangers  of  a  whole 
range  of  chemicals  that  exist  in  our  environment.  I  think  there's 
a  lot  that  we  have  to  learn. 

The  Chairman.  You  think  this  is  part  of  the  problem  here?  Ev- 
erything you've  seen,  your  own  wisdom,  logic,  and  common  sense. 
Do  you  think  that  chemical  and  biological  exposure  may  in  fact  be 
part  of  what's  making  these  veterans  sick? 

Dr.  Kriese.  I  think  there  were  a  lot  of  chemicals  that  were  in 
the  atmosphere  in  the  Gulf  from  a  range  of  sources,  whether  oil 
fires,  chemical  weapons.  You  can  make  a  list  of  things  that  I  think 
that  there's  a  real  possibility  that  low-level  chemicals,  or  a  com- 
bination of  low-level  chemicals  may  be  one  of  the  contributors  to 
this  disease. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  believe  that,  too.  Dr.  Prociv? 

Dr.  Prociv.  I  wouldn't  discount  it.  Again,  I'm  not  a  medical  type. 
My  biggest  dilemma  is  I  don't  understand  how  the  chemicals  would 
get  there  in  sufficient  quantity.  If  I  understood  that,  I  would  be- 
lieve that. 

The  Chairman.  What  do  you  believe,  Mr.  Dom? 

Mr.  DoRN.  Senator,  as  I  said,  we're  exploring  a  large  range  of 
possibilities,  including  the  one  that  we've  discussed  extensively 
here  today. 

However,  let  me  go  back  to  something  that  I  said  in  my  state- 
ment. There  are  a  large  number  of  theories  out  there,  each  with 
a  strong  proponent,  for  multiple  chemical  sensitivity,  for  parasitic 
infections,  for  chemical  agents,  for  other  possible  causes.  We  are 
trying  to  explore  all  the  possibilities.  I  think  it  would  be  a  mistake 
for  us  to  focus  on  one  possibility  to  the  exclusion  of  all  others. 

I  could  get  a  great  headline  here  if  I  were  to  point  to  a  single 
cause.  But  that  would  be  a  disservice  to  this  Committee  and  it  cer- 
tainly would  be  a  disservice  to  the  veterans  to  try  to  speculate 
about  matters  that  we  are  still  trying  to  study. 

We  do  not  understand  it. 

Senator,  I  have  had  the  experience  of  being  shuffled  from  physi- 
cian to  physician,  trying  to  find  the  answer  to  a  simple  question. 
So  I  empathize  with  the  frustration  being  experience  by  Col.  Smith 
and  other  veterans. 

I  was  not  in  the  Persian  Gulf,  but  I  think  many  of  us  in  this 
room  have  gone  through  that  type  of  frustration.  And  as  one  goes 
from  specialist  to  specialist,  not  getting  answers,  the  fear  and  the 
frustration  build.  There  were  many,  many  times  when  I  would 
have  loved  for  someone  to  say,  aha,  I  know  exactly  what  the  prob- 


47 

lem  is.  I  will  not  try  tx)  offer  veterans  speculation  when  I  think  we 
need  to 

The  Chairman.  They  don't  want  speculation.  I'm  with  you  up  to 
that  point. 

Mr.  DORN.  — Support  clear  research. 

The  Chairman,  Now  I  think — respectfully,  that  veers  off  into 
something, that  doesn't  really  have  a  lot  of  relevance  here. 

The  question  is  what  can  we  offer  them?  Let  me  give  you  some 
specifics. 

No.  1,  to  ones  that  are  sick  and  can't  work,  they  ought  to  have 
100  percent  disability.  That  you  can  offer  them.  That  you  can  fight 
for  and  that  you  should  get  and  we  shouldn't  wait  another  day  to 
do  it. 

No.  2,  if  you've  got  family  members  that  are  sick,  showing  the 
same  syndrome,  they  ought  to  get  care  from  the  Grovemment.  The 
Defense  Department  ought  to  be  fighting  to  get  the  money  for  it. 
If  vou  have  to  not  build  another  battleship  or  something  else  in 
orcier  to  get  the  money  to  take  care  of  the  sick  family  members,  you 
ought  to  stand  up  and  say  it.  And  so  should  the  Secretary  of  De- 
fense, because  the  veterans  are  a  lot  more  important  than  the 
equipment. 

[Applause.] 

I  think  there  should  be  an  epidemiological  study  of  every  single 
Gulf  War  veteran  to  find  out  what's  going  on  out  tnere  and  if  some 
are  being  affected  now,  there  might  be  some  that  are  going  to  be 
affected  3  or  4  years  from  now.  We  could  learn  something  and  do 
something  about  helping  them  at  the  present  time. 

I'm  also  concerned  that  there  are  a  lot  of  other  things  that  we 
haven't  done  here  that  we  could  have  done  with  respect  to  getting 
to  the  bottom  of  these  pretreatment  items.  I  think  we've  got  to 
streamline  the  appeals  process  within  the  Veterans'  Administra- 
tion. There  are  a  whole  host  of  things.  I've  spelled  them  out. 

It  would  be  very  helpful  that  in  the  recommendations  area, 
which  is  not  designed  to  go  to  a  single-cause  issue,  to  go  to  the 
question  of  what  do  we  do  now  to  deal  with  the  damage?  It's  very 
specific  and  it's  very  clear  and  I  think  it's  sound.  I  think  it's  good 
national  policy  and  I  think  the  Defense  Department  today,  the  best 
thing  it  could  do  for  itself  as  it's  trying  to  fi^re  out  what  happened 
is  to  go  on  an  all  points  effort  to  deal  witn  the  aftermath  of  this 
problem  and  see  to  it  that  these  veterans  and  their  families  are 
getting  the  full  scope  of  care  immediately  that  they  need  and  not 
wait  to  find  out  exactly  what  happened  in  each  and  every  instance 
but  to  get  that  job  done. 

I'll  tell  you  very  bluntly,  that  is  not  happening.  And  you  can  say 
this  is  way  up  on  the  priority  list  of  the  Secretary  of  Defense.  But 
I've  listened  to  the  Secretary  of  Defense.  I've  listened  to  him  on  the 
radio.  I've  watched  him  on  television.  I've  been  waiting  for  him  to 
talk  about  this  problem.  He  can  get  a  mike  any  time  he  wants  it. 
He  can  step  outside  his  office  door  and  say,  get  the  networks  in 
here.  I've  got  something  to  say  on  the  Gulf  War  Syndrome  issue. 
And  you  know  what?  They'll  be  there.  They'll  be  happy  to  come.  He 
can  talk  about  this  and  he  can  deliver  a  message  that's  so  powerful 
and  so  clear  that  shows  where  the  priority  is  in  treating  these  sick 
veterans  and  their  famihes,  that  it's  unmistakable. 


48 

The  silence  is  deafening.  That  hasn't  happened.  And  there's  no 
excuse  for  it.  I  wouldn't  have  a  Secretary  of  Defense  that  didn't  do 
that,  quite  frankly,  if  I  were  running  the  show.  It's  not  enough  to 
do  all  the  other  things. 

I'm  making  my  statement,  Mr.  Dom.  You  can  make  yours  in  a 
minute.  I  know  you've  got  to  defend  the  Department.  That's  your 
job.  It  doesn't  happen  to  be  my  job.  That's  why  we've  got  a  balance 
of  power  difference  in  this  Government  of  ours. 

I  think  he's  got  an  obligation  to  speak  out  and  give  some  leader- 
ship on  this  issue.  I  think  he's  got  to  address  Col.  Smith's  problem 
and  these  other  veterans  who  are  here  in  this  room  and  there  are 
thousands  more  that  aren't  here.  And  especially  these  spouses  and 
these  sick  kids. 

I've  seen  the  sick  kids.  You  ought  to  go  see  some  of  them.  You 
ought  to  go  talk  with  them.  It  will  change  your  thinking  about  this 
problem,  I  guarantee  it.  It  will  make  you  a  lot  more  passionate 
about  it  and  a  lot  more  determined  to  get  to  the  bottom  of  it  in 
terms  of  at  least  treatment  for  people,  because  we're  not  treating 
people  today.  Where  does  the  spouse  and  the  child  go  today?  Can 
they  go  to  the  VA  hospital?  No,  the  VA  hospital  isn't  geared  to  take 
them.  It  doesn't  want  them. 

Mr.  DoRN.  Senator,  the  law  can  be  changed  if  you  introduce  the 
appropriate  legislation. 

The  Chairman.  That's  exactly  right.  The  law  can  be  changed  and 
there  are  a  lot  of  ways  that  can  change  it. 

It  would  certainly  help  if  the  Secretary  of  Defense,  representing 
a  continuum  of  decisionmakers,  who  organized  this  whole  effort 
and  sent  everybody  off  to  this  war,  would  step  up  to  the  plate  and 
sav,  look,  we've  got  a  problem  that's  a  fall-out  of  this  war.  We  don't 
fully  understand  it.  Maybe  we  didn't  do  some  things  right.  Maybe 
we  had  the  wrong  sensors.  Maybe  we  didn't  anticipate  the  problem. 
Maybe  when  we  get  to  the  bottom,  somebody's  reputation  is  going 
to  get  nailed.  Maybe  it  turns  out  somebody  somewhere  along  the 
line  said,  we  don't  have  to  worry  about  this  problem.  It  turns  out 
we  did  have  to  worry  about  the  problem. 

I've  seen  that  happen  before,  too,  and  I'm  sure  you  have. 

We  give  you  a  very  good-sized  budget.  I  had  to  fight  to  get  $5 
million  in  the  appropriation  to  do  some  medical  research,  which  I 
did  last  fall  on  the  Senate  floor.  It's  been  hard  to  get  the  money 
even  spent,  I  might  say,  to  hire  the  people  to  go  out  and  do  the 
work.  That's  another  whole  story.  We  won't  get  into  that  here 
today. 

But  it  would  be  very  refreshing  if  the  Defense  Secretary  said, 
we've  got  a  very  tight  budget  and  I  know  it's  hard  to  pay  for  the 
medical  care  here,  but  we're  going  to  set  aside  a  half-billion  dollars 
out  of  the  Defense  Department.  That's  like  pocket  change  in  terms 
of  the  totals,  but  it's  significant  pocket  change  to  say,  I  want  to 
make  sure  that  those  problems  are  taken  care  of.  And  I  don't  want 
any  bureaucratic  mumbo-jumbo  that  the  Veterans'  Affairs  Depart- 
ment doesn't  have  the  money  that  it  needs  or  somebody  else  doesn't 
have  the  money  that  it  needs. 

This  is  a  Defense  Department  operation.  These  people  went  to 
fight  because  we  asked  them  to  go.  We're  responsible  for  what  hap- 
pens to  them  at  the  end  of  the  day.  They're  sick  and  this  is  an 


49 

anomaly  and  we  want  to  get  to  the  bottom  of  it.  And  while  we're 
trying  to  do  that,  we  want  them  treated.  We'll  pay  the  bill. 

You  know  something?  The  people  of  the  country  would  like  to 
hear  that  because  that's  an  acceptance  of  responsibility.  That  isn't 
to  say  that  somebody  did  anything  deliberately  or  anything  of  that 
sort.  It's  an  acceptance  of  the  responsibility  after  the  fact  of  the 
human  need  that's  there.  That  would  be  a  wonderful  gesture  and 
it's  what  ought  to  be  done. 

Now  I'll  bet  you  that  nobody's  even  thought  about  that  at  the  De- 
fense Department.  Or  if  they  have,  they  sure  kept  it  a  secret. 

Mr.  DORN.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  began  my  testimony  by  reading  a  let- 
ter to  all  Persian  Gulf  veterans  from  Chairman  Shalikashvili  and 
jointly  signed  by  the  Secretary  of  Defense.  I  will  be  pleased  to  read 
it  again  into  the  record. 

I  should  point  out,  however,  that  that  letter,  which  promises 
treatment,  which  encourages  people  to  come  forward,  which  tells 
people  that  there  are  no  classification  restrictions  against  what 
they  may  wish  to  say  about  their  experiences,  is  the  last  of  about 
a  dozen  messages  that  various  people  in  the  Defense  Department 
have  sent  out  within  the  past  8  to  10  months. 

Now  it  is  true  that  when  we  send  out  a  message  to  veterans 
which  says,  we're  treating  you,  we  do  not  get  quite  the  same 
amount  of  attention  as  we  can  get  with  a  more  sensational  story. 

However,  we  can  discuss  the  resources  being  dedicated  to  this  ef- 
fort. I  can  assure  you  that  a  soldier  who  comes  forward,  or  a  family 
member  who  comes  forward  to  a  military  medical  facility  will  re- 
ceive care.  This  information  is  often  missed  because  it  seems  to  be 
a  positive  reassurance  which  some  people  are  not  interested  in 
hearing. 

Let  me  say  it  again  loudly.  If  a  soldier  comes  to  a  military  treat- 
ment facility,  he  or  she  will  be  treated.  If  that  soldier  brings  a 
member  of  his  family  in,  he  or  she  will  be  treated.  If  there  is  any- 
one in  this  audience  who  feels  that  has  not  happened,  I  will  take 
the  names,  I  will  make  the  calls,  and  it  will  happen. 

The  Chairman.  Let's  have  order  in  the  room. 

You  have  some  people  here  that  feel  that  way  who  are  standing. 
They  feel  that  they  have  been  given  the  brush-off  in  that  area.  So 
we'll  see  to  it  that  you  have  their  names. 

Let  me  ask  you  this.  When  was  this  letter  put  out? 

Mr.  DoRN.  It's  dated  today. 

The  Chairman.  So,  in  other  words,  the  letter  was  put  out  today. 

Mr.  Dorn.  That  is  the  last,  as  I  said,  of  about  a  dozen  messages 
coming  out  of  DoD  on  this  matter. 

The  Chairman.  But  this  is  the  one  you're  citing  because  this  is 
the  one  that's  obviously  directed  to  the  veterans  with  the  kind  of 
focus  that  you've  just  described. 

But  again  let's  be  honest  with  each  other.  There's  no  coincidence, 
is  there,  in  timing,  that  the  fact  this  letter  is  coming  out  today  and 
we're  having  this  hearing  today. 

Mr.  Dorn.  Yes,  Senator,  it  absolutely  is  a  coincidence  because 
that  letter  has  been  working  its  way  through  the  system  for  some 
time. 

I  should  mention  that  a  week  or  so  ago,  a  message  came  out  from 
the  Assistant  Secretary  of  Health  focusing  on  this.  I  will  be  glad 


50 

to  provide  you  the  list  of  a  couple  of  dozen  things  that  have  gone 
out — either  briefings  or  memoranda  or  messages — since  the  end  of 
the  Persian  Gulf  conflict. 

I  should  also  point  out  something  else,  Senator,  because  there  is 
a  great  deal  of  discussion  about  delay  and  attention. 

I  am  grateful  that  sometime  late  last  spring  or  last  summer,  sev- 
eral Members  of  Congress,  including  Senator  Shelby  and  Mr.  Mont- 
gomery, began  approaching  the  Defense  Department,  saying,  "Hey, 
I  keep  getting  groups  of  veterans  from  my  constituency  coming  for- 
ward and  they  think  they  have  a  problem."  Most  of  these  veterans 
are  in  the  reserves  or  National  Guard  units. 

It  is  not  fair  to  say  that  this  is  a  problem  that  everyone  has  been 
aware  of  since  the  end  of  the  Persian  Gulf  War  and  that  we  are 
only  beginning  to  attend  to.  It  is  fair  to  say  that  it  is  a  problem 
that  has  become  apparent  over  time,  it  did  not  crystallize  either  in 
the  Congress  or  in  the  Defense  Department  until  less  than  a  year 
ago. 

We  have,  I  believe,  tried  to  attend  to  it  since  then.  I  think  we 
can  be  faulted  in  any  number  of  ways.  You  may  be  correct  that,  in 
spite  of  this  letter  and  in  spite  of  dozens  of  other  attempts  to  com- 
municate, we  have  not  done  as  good  a  job  of  getting  the  word  out 
as  we  should  have. 

I  think  you  probably  are  also  right  that  we  had  doctors  in  our 
military  facilities  and  in  VA  facilities  who,  not  having  identified  a 
pattern  or  syndrome,  were  not  as  sensitive  to  the  matter  as  they 
might  have  been.  There  were  also,  as  you  know,  up  until  just  a  few 
months  ago,  restrictions  on  treatment. 

The  Chairman.  I  don't  want  to  stop  you.  If  you'll  permit  me  to 
interrupt  just  for  a  minute  because  I  want  to  hear  your  full  state- 
ment. 

We  have  a  vote  that's  on.  The  lights  back  there  are  on  and  I've 
got  about  8  minutes  to  get  to  the  floor.  I  want  to  make  the  vote. 
It's  a  cloture  vote  and  my  vote  may  decide  the  issue.  I  hesitate  to 
interrupt  this  to  do  that. 

I  want  to  recess  the  Committee  for  that  purpose  and  then  I'll 
come  back  and  I'll  let  you  finish. 

As  nearly  as  I  know,  there  has  been  no  letter  like  this  before 
today  signed  by  the  Chairman  of  the  Joint  Chiefs  and  the  Sec- 
retary of  Defense  sent  to  all  Gulf  War  veterans.  Now,  am  I  right 
in  believing  that? 

Mr.  DORN.  That  is  correct. 

The  Chairman.  Isn't  this  the  first  letter  like  this? 

Mr.  Dorn.  I  think  the  previous  correspondence  has  gone  to  peo- 
ple in  the  military  chain  of  command  for  treatment  instructions 
and  to  commanders. 

The  Chairman.  OK.  Let  me  let  you  check  that  while  I'm  gone. 

Let  me  also  ask  you  to  do  something  else.  You  offered  to  talk  to 
the  veterans  here  who  feel  that  they're  not  getting  the  response  to 
their  medical  problems.  That's  not  an  unlikely  situation.  There  are 
a  lot  of  veterans  who  feel  that  way. 

Mr.  Dorn.  Absolutely. 

The  Chairman.  You  had  some  stand  up  over  here.  You've  had 
three  in  uniform  stand  up  over  here.  While  I'm  gone,  I  would  ap- 


51 

predate  it  because  I'm  going  to  come  back  and  resume  the  hearing, 
if  you  could  chat  with  some  of  them. 

Mr.  DoRN.  Absolutely. 

The  Chairman.  I'd  like  it  to  be  a  civil  conversation.  I  know  every- 
body feels  strongly  about  this.  I'd  ask  everybody  to  conduct  the  dis- 
cussion in  an  orcferly  manner  here  because  I  know  this  arouses  a 
lot  of  tensions  and  feelings.  But  talk  to  Secretary  Dom  while  I'm 
out  of  the  room.  111  vote.  I'll  come  back  and  then  we'll  finish  up 
this  session. 

The  Committee  stands  in  recess  for  a  short  period. 

[Recess.] 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  ask  that  everyone  take  a  seat. 

Secretary  Dorn  has  to  step  out  for  a  minute.  Kelly,  would  you  ac- 
company Secretary  Dom  just  for  a  minute. 

In  any  event,  let  us  resume  then,  if  you're  ready  to  go. 

I  want  to  just  make  a  clarification  on  the  memorandum  today 
from  the  Chairman  of  the  Joint  Chiefs  and  Secretary  Perry  that's 
gone  out  to  the  Persian  Gulf  veterans.  Does  the  statement  cover 
Reservists  and  their  families,  including  those  both  still  in  the  Re- 
serves and  those  that  may  have  left  the  Reserves  since  the  War? 

Mr.  Dorn.  I  think  to  the  extent  that  the  law  permits,  it  does.  I've 
got  to  check. 

If  you're  saying  does  it  allow  Reservists  and  their  families  to  re- 
ceive medical  care  in  regular  military  facilities,  the  answer  is  no, 
and  that  is  a  legal  problem  which  we  need  to  discuss  with  you  and 
certainly  need  to  discuss  with  the  Committees  on  Armed  Services 
and  the  Committees  on  Veterans'  Affairs. 

The  Chairman.  Let's  get  a  clarification  on  that  as  quickly  as  pos- 
sible. I  would  hope  they  would  be  included  because  obviously  if 
they  are  out  there  part  of  the  walking  wounded,  their  problem  is 
precisely  the  same  as  someone  else. 

Mr.  Dorn.  Clearly,  nothing  in  this  changes  existing  law,  and  the 
existing  law  says  active-duty  personnel  and  their  families  get  treat- 
ed in  military  treatment  facilities,  that  Reservists,  under  normal 
circumstances,  would  go  into  the  VA  system. 

Now  the  law  can  be  changed,  but 

The  Chairman.  Here's  what  I'd  like  you  to  do.  I'd  like  you  to  get 
together  with  the  VA  and  let's  resolve  that  we're  covering  every- 
body here.  I  don't  want  somebody  that  was  out  there  and  who's 
sick,  operating  side  by  side  with  somebody  else  who  was  out  there 
and  sick,  and  one  person  gets  one  kind  of  treatment  and  the  other 
person  either  doesn't  get  treatment  or  gets  a  lesser  kind  of  treat- 
ment. 

We  obviously  don't  want  that,  so  I  just  want  to  make  sure  that 
that  gets  reconciled  within  24  hours  in  some  way  so  that  the  mes- 
sage that's  going  out  is  that  anybody  that  suited  up  and  went  is 
going  to  get  the  same  response  that's  being  pledged  here  within 
this  Tetter. 

Mr.  Dorn.  Again,  within  the  constraints  of  the  law.  We  need  to 
work,  as  I  said,  on  the  law.  We  may  need  to  work  on  those  changes, 
to  make  that  happen. 

The  Chairman.  Ill  tell  you  something.  If  we  need  to  do  that,  I 
think  I  can  make  you  a  guarantee.  If  the  Defense  Department  de- 
termines we  need  a  change  in  the  law  in  that  area,  let's  get  it 


52 

drafted.  I'll  offer  it  on  the  floor  to  the  next  bill  through.  I'll  bet  I 
can  get  close  to  100  co-sponsors  and  we'll  get  it  passed.  There'll  be 
no  barrier,  I  don't  believe,  to  getting  that  done  if  we  need  that,  but 
I  don't  want  that  to  become  a  Catch-22  either. 

So 

Mr.  DORN.  And  it  clearly  is  a  limitation  because,  under  current 
law,  Reservists'  families  cannot  be  treated,  either  by  the  regular 
military  facilities  or  in  VA  facilities. 

The  Chairman.  See,  I  don't  know  that  we've  had  a  situation 
quite  like  this  one  where  we  pressed  so  many  Reservists  into  action 
quickly  and  so  many  of  them  are  now  sick.  They  were  operating 
under  color  of  the  U.S.  Government  obviously  in  a  war  zone.  So  the 
last  thing  they  deserve  is  an  answer  that  says,  sorry,  we  can't  get 
to  you  because  the  law's  that  way. 

Mr.  DoRN.  I  understand. 

The  Chairman.  You  know,  we've  got  to  fix  that  problem. 

Mr.  DORN.  Mr.  Chairman,  may  I  say  further  in  response  to  that, 
the  discussions  while  you  were  voting  were  helpful.  A  couple  of 
things  are  clear. 

One  is  that  we  need  to  send  a  clearer,  stronger  message  to  the 
physicians  who  are  responsible  for  treating  folks  regarding  the 
need  to  take  these  illnesses  very  seriously  and  regarding  the  need 
to  lay  out  a  very  strict  protocol  for  them.  Our  expressions  of  good 
intention  must  be  reflected  where  it  matters,  and  that's  in  individ- 
ual clinics  around  the  Nation.  We  need  to  make  sure  it  happens. 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  cover  another  item  with  you  right  up 
front. 

We  have  some  service  personnel  in  the  room  here  other  than  the 
group  that's  accompanying  you,  and  some  have  roles  in  the  intel- 
ligence area  and  may  have  very  important  information,  firsthand 
information  that  they  gathered  as  part  of  their  official  duties,  that 
they  feel  and  know  to  be  highly  relevant  to  the  inquiry  we're  doing. 
They've  identified  themselves.  They  want  to  convey  that  informa- 
tion, and  they've  been  told  by  superiors  not  to  do  that.  That  they're 
not  to  give  us  classified  information. 

I  mean,  my  blood  pressure  goes  to  5000  when  that  happens  be- 
cause precisely  what  we  need  to  have  is  all  the  information,  and 
I  would  like  an  assurance  fi'om  you  now,  provided  you  have  the  au- 
thority to  give  it,  and  if  not,  then  I  want  you  to  go  and  get  it  fi*om 
whoever  you  have  to  get  it  from,  that  present  and  former  military 
personnel  and  Defense  Department  personnel  are  fully  free  and  au- 
thorized to  give  us  what  information  they  have  and  not  be  in  the 
situation  where  they're  having  a  gun  put  to  their  head  by  the  De- 
fense Department  that  says,  no,  you  can't  tell  what  you  know. 

Mr.  Dorn.  The  Secretary  and  the  Chairman  say  that  people 
should  be  free  to  talk  about  their  experiences,  but  let  me  clarify  it 
further,  addressing  specifically  that  clause  which  says  that  this  in- 
formation is  not  classified. 

The  Chairman.  See,  I  think  all  this  information  related  to  this 
topic  should  now  be  declassified.  I  think  everybody  in  the  public  do- 
main ought  to  have  a  right  to  see  it,  including  the  medical  re- 
searchers and  others.  But  very  specifically,  I  don't  want  any  of  us 
who  have  proper  congressional  roles  to  play  here  to  be  denied  ac- 


53 

cess  tx)  any  of  this  information.  That  is  absolutely  unacceptable  and 
I  want  to  get  that  cleared  up  today. 

Mr.  DORN,  Let  me  clarify  further. 

The  Chairman.  Now,  earlier,  you  made  a  statement  or  a  state- 
ment was  made  by  one  of  the  three  of  you  that  all  of  the  chemical 
agents  and  related  equipment  that  was  discovered  was  found 
stored  far  from  the  Kuwait  field  of  operations. 

At  An  Nasiriyah,  and  we've  got  a  map  over  here  where  bombings 
occurred  and  many  chemical  weapons  were  found,  that  area  is  only 
125  miles  from  the  Kuwait/Saudi  border  and  it's  well  within  SCUD 
missile  range  of  most  coalition  deployments.  Weren't  U.S.  forces  lo- 
cated around  this  area? 

Dr.  Prociv.  Yes,  they  were. 

I'll  say  frankly  the  word,  far,  got  in  the  last  draft  of  Dr.  Dom's 
testimony  this  morning.  I  thought  we  had  that  fixed  to  be  stricken 
from  the  draft  testimony  that  he  was  given. 

It  is  not  correct  to  say  that  all  munitions  were  found  far  from  the 
KTL,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  that's  an  important  clarification.  So  there 
were  instances  then  where  some  of  these  munitions  were  found 
close  to  where  we  had  troop  deployments? 

Dr.  Prociv.  That's  correct. 

The  Chairman.  This  would  be  one.  Can  you  cite  others? 

Dr.  Prociv.  Not  off  the  top  of  my  head.  Just  a  second. 

[Pause.] 

I  think  the  answer,  sir,  is  that  we  attacked  Talil  but  U.N.  inspec- 
tions show  nothing  in  that  after  the  War. 

That's  it. 

The  Chairman.  But  in  terms  of  An  Nasiriyah  here,  we  did  find 
them  there.  Do  I  assume  that  we  continued  to  use  our  forces  to  se- 
cure that  area  as  the  War  went  along?  We  would  not  have  just 
been  in  that  area  and  then  left,  would  we? 

Dr.  Prociv.  I  don't  know  those  details  of  how  long  we  were  in 
that  area.  My  understanding  is  that  munitions  were  found  not  at 
the  site  we  bombed,  but  some  15  nautical  miles  away  from  where 
we  attacked. 

The  Chairman.  How  close  would  U.S.  forces  have  been  stationed 
to  that? 

Dr.  Prociv.  I  think  they  were  across  the  river.  Not  stationed  but 
during  the  ground  force  phase  of  the  campaign,  that's  as  close  as 
we  got. 

The  Chairman.  The  river  would  be  how  wide,  roughly?  What  are 
we  talking  about? 

Dr.  Prociv.  It's  a  desert  area  so  I  expect  it's  not  very  wide  there. 

The  Chairman.  So  it's  a  pretty  narrow  river? 

Dr.  Prociv.  Right. 

The  Chairman.  Our  troops  were  right  across  this  narrow  river 
from  where  we  found  these  things.  Is  that  right? 

Dr.  Prociv.  They  got  that  close  but  I  don't  know  how  long  they 
were  there. 

The  Chairman.  We've  got  a  lot  of  questions  here.  We've  covered 
a  lot  of  ground  earlier  with  Senator  Bennett,  and  I'm  going  to  give 
vou  a  number  of  questions  for  the  record  to  ask  you  to  respond  to. 


54 

and  to  respond  to  fiilly.  I  know  you  will.  I  know  it'll  be  your  inten- 
tion to  do  that. 

I  don't  want  to  call  you  back  to  pick  up  the  loose  ends.  I  will  do 
that  if  necessary,  so  I  want  to  make  sure  that  some  staff  aid 
doesn't  put  a  lot  of  doubletalk  in  the  answers.  I  want  good, 
straight,  pointed  answers  to  the  questions  I'm  going  to  give  you  for 
the  record.  I  would  ask  to  have  them  answered  that  way. 

I  want  to  make  another  suggestion  to  you,  because  when  we 
started  out  on  this  way  back  when,  it  was  to  try  to  understand 
what  the  control  regimes  were  that  we  had  within  our  own  Govern- 
ment that  would  have  prevented  Saddam  Hussein  from  getting  the 
things  that  he  needed  to  make  biological  weapons  or  the  things  he 
needed  to  make  chemical  weapons. 

It  was  really  astonishing  to  find  that  our  own  Government  had 
licensed  a  shipment  of  those  very  things  to  Saddam  Hussein  and 
many  of  them  going  directly  to  military  units.  There  was  no  subter- 
fuge, they  were  going  to  go  right  into  his  war  production  system. 
Then,  of  course,  when  we  decided  the  necessity  of  going  to  war  with 
Iraq,  we  had  our  own  troops  suddenly  facing  weapons  that  we  had 
helped  develop  by  providing  critical  items  to  them. 

You're  nodding  in  the  affirmative.  I  don't  want  to  put  words  in 
your  mouth,  but  that's  correct,  is  it  not? 

Mr.  DORN.  As  my  opening  statement  says,  it  appears  that  our  ex- 
port control  regime  was  not  effective. 

The  Chairman.  Right.  We  helped  him  create  these  diabolical 
weapons  by  supplying  a  lot  of  the  critical  things  he  needed  for 
them.  We  also  knew  that  he  had  a  history  of  using  these  weapons. 
He  used  them  on  his  own  people.  He  used  them  on  the  Kurds  years 
earlier,  gassed  and  killed  a  lot  of  people. 

So  when  we  went  into  the  War,  we  must  have  anticipated  a  real 
problem  here.  I  mean  we  just  didn't  send  these  chemical  alarms 
out  just  to  have  something  to  do  in  all  these  MOPP  4  outfits.  We 
sent  them  out  there  because  we  anticipated  that  there  was  a  real 
threat,  did  we  not? 

Mr.  DoRN.  That  is  true,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  We  understood  that  he  had  this  capability  and 
that  it  posed  a  threat  to  our  people  and  we  took  various  steps.  We 
had  the  pretreatment  pills,  we  had  training,  we  had  chemical  mon- 
itors out  in  the  field,  we  had  teams  designed  to  do  this.  All  of  that 
certainly  creates  a  very  strong  supposition  that  we  were  worried 
about  what  he  might  do.  I  don't  think  the  Defense  Department  did 
this  for  an  exercise.  There  was  a  real  worry  that  he  might  use 
these  chemical  weapons  or  biological  weapons,  wasn't  there? 

Mr.  DoRN.  There  was. 

The  Chairman.  There  was  that  worry.  So  these  precautions  were 
taken. 

Now,  as  it  turns  out,  and  this  is  where  the  firsthand  statements 
of  veterans  I  think  are  so  important  because  they're  the  ones  that 
were  out  there,  we  weren't,  and  they're  the  ones,  in  many  cases, 
who  are  sick. 

When  these  alarms  go  off,  I  must  say  to  you,  it's  incredible  and 
unbelievable  and  unsustainable  and  shouldn't,  I  don't  think,  be  of- 
fered to  come  here  today,  any  of  you  and  say,  look  we  had  all  these 
chemical  alarms  and  they  kept  going  off  in  various  areas  through 


55 

the  War  zone,  but  they  were  all  misfires.  It  was  all  accidental 
alarms.  It  doesn't  mean  there  were  any  chemicals  in  the  area. 
There  are  no  chemical  incidents,  and  so  forth  and  so  on. 

Even  as  Senator  Bennett  pointed  out,  going  back  to  some  of  our 
firsthand  accounts,  that  in  many  cases  the  gear  was  picked  up 
afterward  and  who  knows  what  happened  to  it.  We've  had  lots  and 
lots  of  other  accounts  on  that. 

These  alarms  went  off  for  a  reason,  and  I  think  it's  clear,  it's 
clear  in  my  mind  they  went  off  because  the  things  they  were  de- 
signed to  detect  came  into  that  zone  and  set  them  off.  I  mean,  they 
didn't  ^0  off  ahead  of  time,  they  didn't  go  off  afterward;  they  went 
off  during  the  time  that  things  were  going  on  in  the  War  zone  that 
they  were  designed  to  detect. 

I  think  it's  very  important  that  the  Defense  Department  bring  it- 
self to  face  the  reality  that  a  lot  of  veterans  were  exposed  to  chemi- 
cal agents  during  this  war  period.  And  whether  they  were  fired  in 
an  offensive  capacity  in  some  instances,  or  delivered  that  way,  as 
I  also  think  they  were,  is  really  incidental  here. 

The  question  is,  did  people  come  into  contact  with  these  agents, 
and  in  all  likelihood  some  biological  agents  as  well,  and  in  some 
mixture  that  we  don't  yet  fully  understand,  is  this  the  foundation 
for  the  sickness  that  a  lot  of  tnem  have?  I  think  the  facts  now  are 
essentially  inescapable  that  that  is  a  significant  part  of  this  prob- 
lem. 

If  the  Defense  Department  can't  believe  that  or  won't  believe 
that,  or  if  there  are  institutional  reasons,  or  numerous  other  rea- 
sons that  prevent  that  kind  of  acknowledgement,  I  think  this  prob- 
lem's going  to  get  a  lot  worse.  In  the  end,  the  main  losers  are  going 
to  be  the  veterans  and  their  families. 

The  second  loser  is  going  to  be  the  Defense  Department  because 
you're  going  to  end  up  with  your  reputation  in  ruins.  I'm  not  exag- 
gerating and  so  I  don't  want  to  be  misunderstood  when  I  say  I'll 
bring  veterans  in  here  and  have  them,  one  after  the  other,  and 
their  family  members,  for  days  on  end,  I  will  do  that  if  I  have  to, 
because  I  want  this  problem  paid  attention  to.  They  don't  want  to 
come.  I  don't  want  to  ask  them,  but  we  will  ask  them  and  they  will 
come.  That's  not  the  way  to  solve  this  problem,  but  if  there  is  no 
other  way,  then  that's  the  way  we  will  do  it. 

This  is  not  a  shot  across  the  bow.  This  is  about  as  direct  as  the 
communications  get  between  the  Legislative  Branch  and  the  Exec- 
utive Branch. 

I  will  fight  to  get  you  what  you  need.  You  want  money  to  treat 
sick  veterans  and  their  families?  I'll  go  to  the  floor.  I'll  get  a  coali- 
tion of  Republicans  and  Democrats.  I  think  you  saw  that  here 
today.  This  is  a  bipartisan  concern.  If  we  need  to  change  the  laws, 
we'll  get  the  laws  changed. 

What  we  won't  do  is  allow  this  thing  to  be  swept  under  the  rug 
or  covered  up  or  fuzzed  off  in  some  way  to  say  that  it's  not  a  big 
deal  or  it's  not  very  serious,  or  something  else. 

So  to  the  extent  that  there's  a  willingness  to  acknowledge  this 
problem  and  deal  with  it  directly  and  solve  it,  then  you're  going  to 
find  you've  got  a  lot  of  friends  here  that  will  help  you  get  that  done. 

Every  additional  minute  that  there's  foot  dragging,  or  Catch-22 
logic  or  fine-shaving  of  statements  and  so  forth,  for  whatever  the 


56 

reasons,  then  you're  going  to  have  a  war,  and  it  won't  be  a  war  you 
win  in  the  end,  and  it's  one  you  shouldn't  wage. 

I'd  Hke  to  have  an  understanding  here  that  we  solve  this  prob- 
lem. These  veterans,  I've  talked  to  hundreds  of  them  now  directly. 
These  are  not  malingerers,  these  are  not  malcontents,  these  are  not 
people  who  are  having  fantasies.  These  are  sick  people  who,  in 
every  case,  were  well  when  they  went  to  the  War  or  they  could  not 
have  even  gone  to  the  War.  In  many  cases,  they  are  people  who 
were  among  the  most  fit.  People  that  have  gone  through  survival 
school,  paratroop  training,  run  marathons,  and  various  other 
things.  The  fact  that  their  health  has  been  turned  upside  down  is 
a  genuine  national  tragedy.  We  can't  hold  back  anything  that  they 
need  to  get  to  the  bottom  of  this  and  fix  their  problems  as  best  we 
can.  I  do  want  you  to  talk  to  some  of  these  spouses  and  children 
because  you're  not  going  to  appreciate  this  problem  until  you  do. 

When  you  talk  to  a  veteran's  wife  whose  hair  is  falling  out  and 
whose  reproductive  cycle  has  been  knocked  completely  haywire  who 
was  healthy  before  ner  husband  came  back  from  the  Gulf  War, 
you're  going  to  understand  this  problem  in  a  way  you  can't  under- 
stand it  before  that.  You've  got  to  put  a  real  face,  lots  of  real  faces 
on  this  thing  to  understand  tne  severity  of  it. 

I  think  the  Defense  Secretary  himself  needs  to  do  some  of  this, 
to  make  it  real  and  tangible  in  terms  of  the  urgency  of  this  prob- 
lem. 

I'm  going  to  expect  a  good  faith  response  from  everybody  here. 
What  we  can't  tolerate  and  what  I  won't  tolerate  is  a  situation 
where  anybody's  intimidated,  anybody's  called  up  and  it  is  sug- 
gested to  them  that  they  give  a  programmed  answer.  Anybody  told, 
don't  come  forward,  or  in  some  oblique  way  is  urged  not  to  come 
forward,  I  mean  that's  not  tolerable. 

I  don't  believe  you  would  do  that  or  countenance  that  and  so  I 
would  ask  you,  as  an  agent  for  this  Committee  on  this  issue,  pursu- 
ant to  this  discussion,  to  please  go  back  to  the  hierarchy  up  and 
down  the  line  and  make  sure  the  message  is  delivered  as  clearly 
as  you  are  capable  of  doing  it — and  you  are  a  very  good  commu- 
nicator— that  we've  got  to  get  to  the  bottom  of  this  and  we've  got 
to  do  it  as  fast  as  we  possibly  can.  And  whatever  it  takes  to  do  it, 
has  to  be  done. 

The  old  suppositions  and  the  old  ways  of  analyzing  the  problem 
I  think  have  to  be  put  aside  to  see  if  there  isn't  some  new  way  to 
look  at  it. 

Senator  Bennett,  whose  father  was  a  Senator  before  him,  has  a 
long  record  of  support  of  defense  issues.  I  think  he  gave  you  some 
very  wise  counsel  and  advice,  and  that  is  that  this  is  a  problem 
that  may  have  to  be  looked  at.  You're  not  going  to  find  the  answer 
until  you  escape  from  a  preconditioned  way  of  looking  at  it,  to  look 
at  it  in  a  new  way  and  in  a  fresh  way. 

I'm  going  to  expect  that  done  and  I'd  like  to  end  on  that  kind  of 
a  note  of  constructive  agreement  that  we  will  cooperate  in  achiev- 
ing those  goals.  But  I  don't  want  there  to  be  any  illusion  or  mis- 
understanding. We  have  to  get  to  the  bottom  of  this,  and  if  I'm  not 
satisfied  within  a  short  period  of  time  that  we're  really  moving  at 
top  speed,  and  that  we're  escaping  from  all  of  the  kind  of  double- 
talk  that's  been  associated  with  many  cases  up  until  now,  I'm  going 


57 

to  start  holding  the  hearings,  and  you  know,  I  don't  want  to  have 
to  do  it  that  way. 

Mr.  DoRN.  Mr.  Chairman,  I  hear  you  clearly.  I  will  try  to  re- 
spond. 

Thank  you. 

The  Chairman.  We're  going  to  give  you  questions  for  the  record 
and  we  would  appreciate,  as  I  say,  full  responses  to  those  and  we'll 
look  forward  to  getting  those  back. 

The  Committee  stands  in  recess  until  our  next  hearing,  which 
will  start  at  2:45  p.m. 

[Whereupon,  at  2:01  p.m.,  the  Committee  was  recessed,  to  recon- 
vene the  same  day,  Wednesday,  May  25,  1994,  at  2:45  p.m.,  in  the 
same  place.] 


58 

AFTERNOON  SESSION 

The  Chairman.  [2:57  p.m.]  The  Committee  will  come  to  order. 

Let  me  welcome  all  those  in  attendance.  We're  starting  a  little 
late  because  we  ran  so  long  this  morning. 

We're  joined  by  Senator  Kerry  who  has  a  very  important  interest 
in  this  matter  and  who's  been  out  into  this  area.  Let  me  call  on 
Senator  Kerry. 

OPENING  STATEMENT  OF  SENATOR  JOHN  F.  KERRY 

Senator  Kerry.  Mr.  Chairman,  thank  you  very  much.  First  of  all, 
I  want  to  apologize  to  you.  I  had  wanted  to  be  here  earlier,  but  un- 
fortunately, the  way  the  Senate  works,  as  you  well  know,  some- 
times that's  impossible.  But  I  wanted  to  come  here  now  to  thank 
you  for  your  tremendous  leadership  on  this.  I  have  really  been  im- 
pressed, as  a  veteran,  particularly  given  my  long  involvement  in 
the  effort  to  get  an  Agent  Orange  presumption  and  a  bill  through 
here  finally,  I'm  particularly  sensitized  to  the  stonewalling  and  re- 
actions people  will  put  in  the  path  of  those  who  put  on  the  uniform. 

I  was  quite  surprised  to  find  it,  and  I  am  personally  extraor- 
dinarily gratified  and  impressed  by  your  pursuit  of  this.  You've 
been  passionate  on  the  floor,  you've  been  dogged  in  the  Committee 
and  in  private,  and  a  lot  of  veterans  around  the  country  I  think  are 
deeply  indebted  to  you  for  your  concern  that  regrettably  has  not 
been  as  forthcoming  as  it  should  have  been  given  the  lessons  we've 
learned  from  other  entities  that  are  responsible  for  behavior  toward 
those  who  put  on  the  uniform  in  this  country. 

There  always  ought  to  be  a  presumption,  I  believe,  and  that's 
something  we  argued  about  very  hard  on  the  Agent  Orange  issue, 
a  presumption  in  favor  of  the  veteran. 

You  shouldn't  have  to  beat  down  the  doors  to  get  people  to  level 
with  you  and  explain  to  you  what  may  or  may  not  be  factual.  You 
have  a  done  a  brilliant  job  of  forcing  some  information  out  on  this 
that  lends  a  much  clearer  view  about  what  the  possibilities  are  and 
what  may  or  may  not  have  happened.  So  I  want  to  thank  you. 

I  also  want  to  thank  those  who  have  suffered  because  of  this  ex- 
posure, whatever  it  may  be,  yet  to  be  fully  explained,  but  I  really 
want  to  thank  them  for  their  pursuit  of  this  and  for  their  willing- 
ness to  endure. 

I  always  thought  that  after  we  won  the  Agent  Orange  victory,  we 
had  learned  a  lesson  and  there  would  not  have  to  be  another  gen- 
eration coming  along  and  enduring.  So  I'm  here  expressing  per- 
sonal anger  and  frustration  with  the  fact  that  it's  been  a  real  tug 
of  war  to  get  at  this.  I  cannot  underscore  enough  my  own  personal 
admiration  and  respect  for  your  efforts  to  try  to  get  at  it,  and  I 
think  a  lot  of  veterans  just  feel  gratified  that  this  Committee  is 
doing  it,  and  I  support  you  in  those  efforts. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you  very  much,  Senator  Kerry.  Those 
words  mean  something  special  to  me,  coming  from  you,  given  your 
history  years  ago  as  a  Vietnam  War  veteran  and  since  that  time. 

I  think  we've  made  some  important  progress  with  this  work,  with 
your  help  and  the  help  of  others,  to  get  to  the  bottom  of  what  has 
happened  here  and  why  we  have  so  many  sick  veterans  and  in- 
creasingly so  many  sick  veteran  family  members. 


59 

Spouses  whose  reproductive  cycle  is  not  working  properly  or  suf- 
fering hair  loss,  a  lot  of  the  symptoms  that  the  veterans  themselves 
are  experiencing  and  now  increasingly  their  children.  This  was  an 
unanticipated  finding  by  us,  as  we  got  more  deeply  into  this,  but 
the  numbers  are  growing  in  this  area,  and  we're  now  pursuing  that 
aspect  of  it. 

But  the  question  of  exposure  to  chemical  agents  and  to  biological 
agents  in  this  war  zone  and  the  implications  for  veterans  and  also 
a  lot  of  active-duty  personnel,  there  are  a  lot  of  active-duty  person- 
nel who  are  afraid  now  to  come  forward  because  there's  a  down- 
sizing going  on  and  they  don't  want  to  be  invited  to  leave  because 
they've  been  identified  as  having  a  medical  problem. 

Many  of  the  veterans  who  were  already  out  of  the  service  tell  us 
that  if  you  don't  get  any  real  help  out  of  the  VA  or  in  terms  of  a 
disability  rating,  and  you're  too  sick  to  work,  you're  absolutely  un- 
insurable, the  insurance  companies  don't  want  to  see  you  because 
you  need  the  help  and  you  need  the  coverage. 

So  there's  a  diabolical  end-game  situation  facing  more  and  more 
Desert  Storm  veterans.  And  when  you  think  back  to  the  parades, 
the  deserved  parades  at  the  time  as  the  war  was  ending  and  people 
were  coming  back,  they  don't  mean  much  now  if  a  veteran  is  sick 
or  his  family  members  are  sick,  and  they  need  a  response,  they 
need  a  proper  diagnosis,  and  they  need  proper  care. 

Even  today  with  respect  to  the  family  members,  we  were  able  to 
get  from  the  Defense  Department  this  very  day,  coincidentally,  a 
statement  to  all  Gulf  War  veterans,  signed  by  the  Chairman  of  the 
Joint  Chiefs  and  the  Defense  Secretary  indicating  that  they  are 
now  being  urged  to  come  forward,  and  they  will  be  given  help.  That 
is  a  constructive  statement.  Now  we've  got  to  see  that  statement 
fully  implemented,  and  there  are  questions  as  to  how  it  affects  Re- 
servists and  others. 

I've  also  made  the  pledge  today,  just  for  your  own  information, 
that  if  we  don't  get  the  response  that  is  needed  here,  I'm  quite  pre- 
pared to  conduct  hearings  where  we  have  veterans  come  in  endless 
numbers.  I  hate  to  go  through  the  process  of  asking  people  to  make 
that  effort,  but  if  it's  needed  in  order  to  really  force  this  issue  to 
a  proper  conclusion,  we'll  do  that,  and  we'll  have  hearings  that  go 
on  as  long  as  they  need  to  go  on,  until  the  powers  that  be  under- 
stand that  this  is  not  going  to  be  an  issue  that's  swept  under  the 
rug.  We're  not  going  to  have  a  20-year  hiatus  as  we  had  with  Agent 
Orange.  We've  had  a  lot  of  veterans  from  Desert  Storm  already  die, 
who  went  over  in  perfect  health. 

Senator  Kerry.  Well,  it's  very  curious,  I  must  say.  I  mentioned 
a  moment  ago  to  the  staff  that  I  was  in  Kuwait  about  2  days  after 
the  liberation  as  part  of  the  observer  group  from  the  Senate,  and 
apart  from  biological  or  chemical,  I  found  that  the  acridity  of  the 
air  and  the  thickness  of  the  air  just  from  the  oil  fires.  I  remember 
turning  to  one  of  the  soldiers  there  in  Kuwait  and  asking  him 
whether  the  air  he  was  breathing  bothered  him,  and  how  he  felt 
about  being  outdoors.  In  fact,  several  people  there  who  were  from 
Reserve  units  out  of  Massachusetts  mentioned  to  me  that  they 
were  very  concerned  about  breathing  the  air. 

I've  got  to  tell  you,  for  the  24  hours  or  whatever  that  I  was  there, 
I  found  a  significant  impact  and  discomfort  from  the  air  I  was 


60 

breathing,  not  unlike  Bangkok  where  you  can  go  out  and  you  can't 
run.  In  15  minutes,  you  feel  your  lungs  searing. 

I  certainly  felt  the  effect  of  those  fires  and  wnthin  miles  around, 
when  it  rained  buildings  were  covered,  cars  were  covered.  I  mean, 
you  had,  as  far  away  as  in  Rihad,  you  had  buildings  that  turned 
black  by  virtue  of  the  rain.  You  had  black  rain.  So  that  means  you 
have  particles  in  the  air,  and  if  you  have  particles  in  the  air,  you 
are  clearly  breathing  those  particles.  I  don't  know  what  the  air 
quality  was,  I  don't  even  know  if  we  measured  that  air  quality,  but 
I  remember  distinctly  feeling  it  and  having  concern  expressed  to 
me  by  people. 

Now  I'm  told  that  that  has  not  yet  showed  up  or  there  isn't  some 
indication  of  that,  but  I  would  personally  be  surprised  if,  for  those 
who  were  there  for  some  period  of  time,  there  isn't  some  kind  of 
impact  or  potential  for  it. 

Anyway,  I  think  you're  doing  very  important  work  here.  I  apolo- 
gize to  those  who  wish  more  of  us  were  here  and  able  to  stay,  but 
the  Senate  doesn't  always  allow  that. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you  very  much  again,  Senator  Kerry. 

Let  me  introduce  our  first  witness  this  afternoon.  Dr.  Mitchell 
Wallerstein,  who  is  the  Deputy  Assistant  Secretary  for  Counterpro- 
liferation  Policy,  Department  of  Defense,  and  we're  pleased  to  have 
you. 

You've  come  in  the  trail  of  an  earlier  discussion  this  morning,  as 
you  know.  Why  don't  you  proceed  and  give  us  your  statement  at 
this  point,  and  then  we'll  go  from  there. 

OPENING  STATEMENT  OF  DR.  MITCHELL  WALLERSTEIN,  DEP- 
UTY ASSISTANT  SECRETARY  FOR  COUNTERPROLIFERATION 
POLICY,  U.S.  DEPARTMENT  OF  DEFENSE,  WASfflNGTON,  DC 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  Thank  you  very  much,  Mr.  Chairman. 

My  prepared  remarks  are  really  not  so  much  a  statement  as  a 
comment  that  is  supplementary  to  the  testimony  given  this  morn- 
ing by  Under  Secretary  Dorn.  And  so  I  simply  wanted  to  say  that 
I'm  pleased  to  be  here  this  afternoon  to  answer  any  questions  that 
you  might  have  regarding  export  controls  and  DoD's  counterpro- 
liferation  policies,  particularly  in  the  areas  of  chemical  and  biologi- 
cal weapons  proliferation.  We  obviously  wish  to  be  fully  cooperative 
with  your  hearing,  your  investigation,  and  are  prepared  to  do  so. 

As  Under  Secretary  Dorn  explained,  the  Department  of  Defense 
was  a  major  contributor,  in  1990,  to  the  development  of  the  En- 
hanced Proliferation  Control  Initiative,  which  expanded  DoD's  role 
in  the  review  of  export  requests,  and  which  promoted  greater  inter- 
agency cooperation  through  the  establishment  of  interagency  sub- 
groups on  export  controls. 

Let  me  underscore  once  again,  however,  the  fact  that  DoD  has 
never  been  in  the  business  of  export  control  licensing,  either  for 
dual-use  items  or  for  munitions. 

We  do,  however,  continue  to  be  an  active  participant  in  the  li- 
cense review  process,  particularly  and  increasingly,  in  areas  involv- 
ing chemical  and  biological  materials.  These  are  coordinated  multi- 
laterally  through  the  Australia  group. 


61 

We  will  continue  to  play  a  leading  role  in  the  U.S.  Government's 
efforts  to  counter  the  proliferation  of  chemical  and  biological  weap- 
ons, but  we  do  not  license.  We  are  simply  a  reviewer  of  licenses. 

As  you  know,  in  the  period  immediately  prior  to  the  conflict  in 
the  Persian  Gulf,  DoD's  role  in  the  review  of  chemical  and  biologi- 
cal related  dual-use  export  licenses  for  non-communist  countries, 
such  as  Iraq,  focused  only  on  the  assessment  of  risk  of  diversion 
of  these  dual-use  items  to  the  Soviet  Union  or  to  other  CoCom  pro- 
scribed destinations. 

We  had,  at  that  time,  no  authority  to  review  licenses  destined  for 
Iraq,  per  se,  in  terms  of  their  risk  of  proliferation.  Additionally,  of 
the  export  licenses  that  we  did  review  for  Iraq,  we  are  aware  of 
none  that  supported  Iraq's  chemical  or  biological  weapons  efforts. 

Since  the  revelations  of  the  Persian  Gulf  War,  law  and  regula- 
tions have  been  modified  to  permit  us  to  be  more  aggressive  with 
regard  to  the  review  of  dual-use  export  licenses  to  proliferant  states 
per  se. 

As  you  know,  the  Enhanced  Proliferation  Control  Initiative  was 
passed  in  November  1990,  and,  of  course,  Iraq  today  is  subject  to 
a  total  embargo  on  such  items.  We  weigh  in  heavily  now  with  rec- 
ommendations against  approval  of  cases  where  the  end  user  is 
questionable,  or  where  the  items  appear  to  have  no  legitimate  de- 
fense or  peaceful  purpose. 

As  you  also  know,  Mr.  Chairman,  the  Administration's  bill  for 
the  renewal  of  the  Export  Administration  Act,  which  is  now  before 
your  Committee,  would  give  us  the  latitude  to  further  review  a 
large  number  of  cases,  and  we  could  designate  the  categories  that 
we  wish  to  review. 

In  addition  to  these  initiatives,  we  have  now  in  prospect  the  mul- 
tilateral support  of  157  states,  which  have  signed  the  Chemical 
Weapons  Convention.  When  it  is  ratified,  these  states  will  under- 
take not  to  acquire,  retain,  or  transfer  chemical  weapons  or  their 
precursors  for  the  purposes  prohibited  under  the  CWC. 

Finally,  the  President  has  directed  that  we  pursue  measures  to 
strengthen  the  1975  Biological  Weapons  Convention  in  order  to  en- 
hance transparency  and  to  promote  increased  verifiability  of  the 
use  of  these  biological  agents  for  peaceful  and  civilian  activities. 

Mr.  Chairman,  that  concludes  my  comment.  I'd  be  very  happy  to 
take  your  questions. 

The  Chairman.  How  long  have  you  been  in  your  present  job? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  Since  July  1993,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  What  did  you  do  before  that? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  Before  that,  I  was  the  Deputy  Executive  Offi- 
cer of  the  National  Academy  of  Sciences. 

The  Chairman.  Did  you  have  a  position  at  any  time  in  the  De- 
fense Department  or  anything  related  to  it  prior  to  that  last  assign- 
ment? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  No,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  So  you  were  not,  in  a  sense,  in  the  Government, 
you  were  not  in  the  loop  when  the  request  was  made  for  these  ex- 
port licenses  on,  say,  the  biological  items  that  were  sent  over  to 
Iraq? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  That's  correct,  sir. 


86-55R  n  -  oc.  _   -3 


62 

The  Chairman.  You've  reviewed  all  that  carefully,  however,  in 
terms  of  what  happened  on  somebody  else's  watch? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  I  have,  yes. 

The  Chairman.  Now,  and  I  want  you  to  think  very  carefully 
about  this  because  I'm  prepared  to  challenge  your  statement,  and 
that  doesn't  mean  your  statement  might  not  be  right,  but  did  I  un- 
derstand you  to  say  that  none  of  the  items  that  were  shipped  over 
to  Saddam  Hussein  ended  up  being  used  in  his  biological  or  chemi- 
cal weapons  capability,  things  that  were  licensed  and  shipped  from 
the  United  States? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  No,  sir.  What  I  said  was  that  in  none  of  the 
cases  that  DoD  reviewed  are  we  aware  that  those  items  wound  up 
being  used  in  chemical  or  biological  weapons  programs. 

The  Chairman.  OK 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  But  again,  let  me  repeat  that  we  had  only 
very  limited  review  authority,  because  it  was  only  the  retransfer 
issue  at  that  time.  It  was  only  the  potential  for  retransfer  of  items 
to  the  Soviet  Union  or  to  other  communist  countries  at  that  time 
were  we  authorized  to  review. 

The  Chairman.  Then  you  would  not  have  reviewed  the  requests 
that  were  made  directly  by  the  Iraqis  that  came  into  the  research 
labs  here  for  some  of  these  very  dangerous  biological  specimens 
which  we,  in  fact,  shipped  to  them.  You  would  not  have  reviewed 
those? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  Only  if  the  case  was  referred  to  us  by  the 
Commerce  Department  and,  again,  they  would  not  have  been  refer- 
ring those  cases  unless  they  anticipated  the  possibility  of 
retransfer. 

The  Chairman.  In  other  words,  those  would  not  have  been  with- 
in the  scope  of  your  review? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  Not  as  a  general  practice,  that's  right. 

The  Chairman.  OK,  so  you  can't  assert,  one  way  or  the  other,  as 
to  whether  those  items  ended  up  in  Saddam  Hussein's  war  ma- 
chine, the  stuff  that  we  know  we  sent  him,  not  for  transshipment 
to  somebody  else,  but  the  end  shipment  to  him. 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  That's  correct. 

The  Chairman.  OK.  Because  it's  clear,  when  you  go  back  and  fol- 
low the  pattern  of  what  was  being  done  here,  that  when  they  were 
requesting  these  biological  specimens,  they  were  being  shipped  over 
to,  in  some  cases,  the  front  operations  within  the  Iraqi  government, 
that  were  in  fact  part  of  their  military  apparatus.  You  are  aware 
of  that? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  I  have  read  information  to  that  effect,  yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Did  vou  happen  by  chance  to  see  the  letter, 
which  had  a  little  bit  of*^a  frantic  tone  to  it,  from  Secretary  Baker 
in  the  Bush  Administration,  as  the  war  was  getting  ready  to  start, 
that  we  suddenly  stopped  the  shipments  to  Iraq  of  these  kinds  of 
items,  things  that  could  be  either  used  in  chemical  weapons  or  bio- 
logical weapons  or  nuclear  weapons.  Are  you  aware  of  that  letter 
that  was  sent  around? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  No,  sir,  I  am  not. 

The  Chairman.  We  ought  to  give  you  a  copy  of  it,  because  it  was 
a  case  of  suddenly  it  dawned  on  people  that  we  were  going  to  have 
a  real  problem  facing  off  against  weapons  that  we  had  inadvert- 


63 

ently,  one  presumes,  helped  create.  And  that's  part  of  our  problem 
here,  but  your  testimony  is  that  you  only  looked  at  the  things  that 
were  going  to  be  transshipped  to  the  so-called  rogue  regimes  that 
were  on  the  bad  guy  list  at  the  time.  Is  that  right? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  To  the  countries  that  were  proscribed  by 
CoCom,  which  were  the  Soviet  Union,  China,  and  the  other  com- 
munist countries  of  the  Warsaw  Treaty  Organization. 

I  might  also  mention,  Mr.  Chairman,  that  of  course,  these  tech- 
nologies are  classically  dual  use  in  nature.  They  have  both  commer- 
cial and  military  applications.  And  so,  in  the  period  prior  to  the 
outbreak  of  the  war,  there  was  a  legitimate  comm.ercial  trade 
which  may  have  contributed  to  the  problem,  but  that  is  beyond  the 
purview  of  the  Department  of  Defense. 

The  Chairman.  Are  you  in  a  position  to  tell  us  whether  Iraq's  bi- 
ological warfare  program  was  offensive  in  nature? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  The  indications  certainly  after  the  war  were 
that,  from  the  evidence  obtained,  they  were  making  strong  efforts 
to  obtain  an  offensive  capability.  Whether  they  had  actually 
achieved  that  or  not,  I  do  not  know,  personally. 

The  Chairman.  Were  they  capable  of  incorporating  those  items 
into  weapons  systems? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  In  my  judgment,  they  would  have  been  capa- 
ble of  doing  that,  yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  You  know,  after  the  war,  after  even  the  bombing 
destroyed  a  lot  of  the  weapons,  we  had  taken  into  possession,  very 
large  quantities  of  chemical  weapons.  You  are  aware  of  that? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  And  in  a  deliverable  form,  a  variety  of  deliver- 
able forms. 

What  initiatives  has  the  United  States  undertaken  now  to  ensure 
an  effective  successor  regime  to  CoCom? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  That  process  is  now  fairly  well  advanced,  and 
I  am  a  major  player  in  that  process  representing  my  Department. 
We  are,  as  you  know,  negotiating  not  just  with  the  original  17 
CoCom  member  states,  but  with  a  larger  group  that  includes  many 
of  the  other  advanced  industrialized  countries  of  Europe,  such  as 
Switzerland,  Sweden,  and  Austria. 

Agreement  has  been  reached  in  principle  for  a  regime  that  will 
have  two  pillars;  a  dual-use  pillar  similar  to  the  old  CoCom,  as  well 
as  an  armaments  pillar.  We  hope  very  much  that  the  arms  pillar 
will  focus  particularly  on  these  countries  of  greatest  proliferation 
concern. 

The  final  details  of  the  regime  are  still  being  negotiated,  but  it 
is  our  expectation,  and  we  have  preliminary  agreement  among  the 
participating  states,  that  the  new  regime  will  begin  operation  in 
the  latter  part  of  this  year,  after  October. 

The  Chairman.  What  kind  of  controls  would  you  recommend  that 
we  have  in  place  to  prevent  chemical  and  biological,  and  for  that 
matter,  nuclear  materials  getting  to  countries  in  situations  such  as 
we've  now  seen  where  Iraq  exploited  our  openness  to  their  advan- 
tage and  then  ultimately  as  a  threat  to  us  and  to  others?  What 
kind  of  controls  do  we  need  to  have  in  this  area  to  avoid  having 
another  one  of  these  situations  arise? 


64 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  Well,  we  do  have  in  place  the  Enhanced  Pro- 
liferation Control  Initiative,  which  provides  us  with  a  safety  net. 
Thus,  in  situations  where  an  end  user  is  considered  to  be  question- 
able, where  a  company  knows  or  has  reason  to  know  that  an  end 
user  may  not  be  intending  to  use  the  item  in  question  for  civilian 
application,  it  should  be  applying  for  an  export  license  and  the 
Government  has  the  means  to  insist  that  they  apply  for  such  a 
validated  license. 

In  addition,  as  I  said,  the  new  Export  Administration  Act  will 
provide  the  necessary  framework  for  the  Department  of  Defense 
and  for  other  national  security-related  agencies  to  request  to  re- 
view all  broad  categories  of  licenses  related  to  chemical  and  biologi- 
cal precursors  and  other  related  items. 

On  the  multilateral  front,  we  have  the  Australia  g^oup  operating 
today.  As  I  noted  in  my  comment,  we  hope  very  much  that  perhaps 
by  early  1995,  we  will  have  a  ratified  Chemical  Weapons  Conven- 
tion, which  will  then  obligate  the  157  signatory  countries.  This  will 
include  most,  but  I  should  say  not  "all"  of  the  countries  of  concern, 
to  a  transparency  regime  where  we  and  the  multilateral  authority, 
more  importantly,  would  have  the  ability  to  inspect  and  to  ensure 
that  items  were  not  being  turned  to  military  use. 

I  will  add  that  the  biological  weapons  problem  is  somewhat  more 
difficult.  It  is,  as  I'm  sure  you  know,  much  easier  to  conceal  and 
it  therefore  presents  us  with  a  much  greater  challenge. 

President  Clinton,  as  part  of  his  announcements  last  fall,  has 
called  for  enhanced  transparency  measures  to  be  developed  in  the 
Biological  Weapons  Convention.  We  are  pursuing  that  and  hope  to 
be  working  with  the  other  countries  that  are  signatories  to  the  Bio- 
lo^cal  Weapons  Convention  to  promote  greater  transparency  there. 

The  Chairman.  You  know,  as  we  started  down  the  track  of  trying 
to  determine  what  was  causing  the  sickness  of  the  Gulf  War  veter- 
ans and  their  family  members,  and  taking  the  symptoms  and  try- 
ing to  overlay  on  the  symptoms  what  kinds  of  exposures  could  have 
caused  those  health  effects  and  health  symptoms,  that  by  the  proc- 
ess of  elimination,  we  worked  our  way  back  to  biological  exposures. 

It  was  out  of  that  that  we  continued  to  work  back  on  an  inves- 
tigative trail  to  fmd  that  the  United  States  had  authorized,  at  the 
highest  levels  of  our  Government,  the  shipment  of  these  very  kinds 
of  biological  items  to  Saddam  Hussein  going  into  his  war-making 
machine.  And  so  there's  a  very  powerful  case  and  logic  and  se- 
quence of  factual  activity  that  would  suggest  that  we  had  a  big 
hand,  presumably  unwittingly,  in  helping  him  develop  his  biologi- 
cal warfare  capability. 

It's  led  me  to  believe  that  we  ought  to  be  very  careful  about  who 
we're  shipping  these  biological  items  to,  and  the  fact  that  they  are 
easier  to  conceal  also  should  raise  our  alarm  levels  because  I  think 
you've  got  more  and  more  of  these  regimes  that  are  willing  to  go 
to  any  lengths  in  using  these  diabolical  weapons  even  against  their 
own  people,  which  Saddam  Hussein  has  a  history  of  doing. 

It  seems  to  me  we  ought  to  be  trving  to  strengthen  the  Biological 
Warfare  Convention.  I'm  just  wond.ering  what  you  think  we  can  do 
in  that  area,  given  the  fact  that  it's  in  a  sense  more  difficult  to  do 
the  monitoring.  How  do  we  tighten  this  thing  down  so  we  don't  end 
up  having  another  situation  like  this  arise  in  the  future? 


65 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  I  think  that  the  key,  Senator,  Hes  in  trans- 
parency. Where  countries  are  not  prepared  to  be  fully  transparent 
in  their  dealings,  which  involves  intrusive  inspections. 

I  might  note  that  that  raises,  in  turn,  the  problem  of  proprietary 
information,  because  we  have  to  bear  in  mind  that  it's  the  same 
technology  that's  used  in  pharmaceutical  manufacturing,  for  exam- 
ple. And  so  just  as  we  would  have  to  prevail  upon  our  pharma- 
ceutical companies  to  be  open  to  this  kind  of  inspection,  so  would 
other  countries.  But  it  is  only  through  intrusive  inspection,  and  by 
countries  agreeing  to  be  open,  that  we  can  have  any  kind  of  con- 
fidence that  these  things  are  not  being  hidden. 

I  might  also  note,  in  response  to  your  earlier  comment,  that  the 
Defense  Technology  Security  Administration,  which  is  a  part  of  the 
program  elements  that  I  am  responsible  for,  has  had  an  on-going 
program  to  identify  the  linkages  between  the  front  companies  and 
the  cutouts  and  the  third  party  purchasers  that  are  used,  not  just 
by  Iraq,  but  by  other  proliferant  countries,  and  we  are  pursuing 
this  very  aggressively.  And,  again,  as  we  now  assert  the  right  to 
review  these  cases,  we  will  be  looking  very  carefully  for  these  kinds 
of  practices  to  prevent  their  recurrence  in  the  future. 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  ask  you  what  role,  if  any,  have  you 
played  in  the  Department  of  Defense's  investigation  into  the  Iraqi 
chemical  and  biological  warfare  programs  and  into  the  discovery  of 
or  use  of  unconventional  weapons  during  the  Persian  Gulf  War? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  My  office,  which  is  newly  reorganized  as  part 
of  the  Office  of  the  Under  Secretary  of  Defense  for  Policy,  does  play 
a  direct  role  in  support  of  UNSCOM  and  the  IAEA.  Indeed,  one  of 
my  staff  participated  as  the  chief  inspector  on  a  recent  mission  to 
Iraq,  where  he  directed  the  emplacement  of  chemical  air  samplers 
at  strategic  points  around  the  country,  to  ensure  that  the  Iraqi 
chemical  capability  is  not  reconstructed. 

We  have  also  been  active  in  other  aspects  of  ensuring  that  the 
thorough-going  inspections  that  have  been  undertaken  since  the 
end  of  the  war  are  completed.  That  is,  we've  been  marshalling  the 
capabilities  of  the  laboratories  and  of  other  U.S.  Government  tech- 
nical agencies  to  provide  UNSCOM  with  the  necessary  technology 
that  it  needs  to  monitor  on  a  long-term  basis.  And  the  same  appHes 
to  the  IAEA  in  the  nuclear  area. 

The  Chairman.  How  much  knowledge  do  you  have,  as  you  sit 
here  today,  on  the  chemical  and  biological  capability  that  Saddam 
Hussein  had  crafted  for  himself  prior  to  the  war? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  Sir,  I  only  know  what  I  have  read  in  the  brief- 
ing papers.  As  we  discussed  earlier,  I  was  not  part  of  the  U.S.  Gov- 
ernment at  that  time. 

The  Chairman.  You  have  access  to  any  and  all  records  of  that 
kind  if  you  seek  that  access? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  I  believe  I  do,  ves,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  I  think  it  would  probably  be  a  smart  thing  for 
you  to  do.  If  you're  going  to  figure  out  a  way  to  make  sure  that  we 
don't  have  a  problem  like  this  in  the  future,  it's  very  important  to 
do  a  careful  reconstruction  of  what  happened  because  I  think  the 
evidence  now  is  so  powerful,  from  so  many  different  directions. 

I  don't  know  if  you  were  here  earlier,  but  we  heard  some  infor- 
mation presented  by  the  witnesses  from  the  Defense  Department, 


66 

an  estimate  of  some  14,000  sensors,  chemical  agent  sensors  put  out 
into  the  field,  that  might  have  been  going  off  on  the  average  3 
times  a  day,  but  they  were  all  false  alarms. 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  Yes,  sir.  I  unfortunately  was  not  present  this 
morning  for  the  testimony,  but  I  have  read  that  assertion. 

I  might  just  add  that  one  of  the  other  responsibilities  of  my  office 
is  to  work  with  the  Services  and  with  the  acquisition  part  of  the 
Pentagon  to  develop  new  sensor  capabilities.  We  are  actively  pursu- 
ing as  a  top  priority  the  procurement  of  new  battlefield  sensors  in 
both  the  biological  and  the  chemical  area.  We  very  much  hope  that, 
when  and  if  we  have  to  put  soldiers  in  harm's  way  again,  we  will 
have  more  accurate  and  more  rapidly  responsive  capabilities. 

The  Chairman.  Does  that  also  include  the  development  of  new 
chemical  agent  detection  alarms? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  Yes,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Are  we  still  using  the  ones  that  we  used  in  the 
Persian  Gulf  War?  Are  those  still  a  standard  issue  item? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  There  has  been  no  new  technology  introduced 
in  that  area  to  my  knowledge,  sir,  at  this  point.  But,  there  is  sub- 
stantial research  going  on. 

The  Chairman.  You  know,  the  amazing  thing  about  that,  I  mean, 
it's  so  incredible  that  it's  unbelievable  but  if  you  put  those  two  ar- 

faments  together,  it  would  be  that  the  alarms  that  we  had  that 
ept  going  off  when  they  shouldn't  have  and  therefore  were  not 
useful  to  us,  we're  still  using. 

I  mean,  it  just 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  It  takes  time  to  come  up  with  a  better  techno- 
logical solution,  but  as  I  said,  it  is  one  of  the  top  priorities  that 
have  been  identified.  We've  had  a  series  of  groups  that  have  been 
working  under  the  Under  Secretary  for  Acquisition.  That  was  for- 
merly Dr.  Deutch.  Dr.  Deutch  is  still  overseeing  this  process.  He 
is  now  the  Deputy  Secretary  of  Defense,  and  the  chemical  and  bio- 
logical sensor  issue  is  one  of  the  top  priorities  that  have  been  iden- 
tified for  further  work,  and  to  field  as  rapidly  as  possible. 

The  Chairman.  Do  we  have  biological  sensor  capabilities  that  are 
now  able  to  be  deployed  and  give  us  real-time  readings  on  biologi- 
cal exposures  and  biological  weapons  being  used? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  No,  sir.  There  is  no  fielded  biological  sensor. 

The  Chairman.  How  close  are  we  to  having  something  in  that 
area? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  I  believe  that  we  expect  that  we  may  have 
something  before  the  turn  of  the  century.  We  would  be  able  to  have 
something  fielded  by  then,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  Does  North  Korea  have  a  chemical  weapons  ca- 
pability? 

Dr.  Wallerstein,  I  would  defer  that  question  if  I  may,  please, 
to  my  colleague  from  the  Central  Intelligence  Agency,  who  will  be 
appearing  as  your  next  witness. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  know  one  way  or  the  other? 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  I  have  seen  some  information,  but  I'm  not  in 
a  position  to  reach  a  net  judgment  on  that. 

The  Chairman.  My  understanding  is  that  they  apparently  have 
both,  chemical  and  biological.  It's  a  very  important  question,  as  vou 
know,  because  things  are  tense  there  and  you've  just  indicated  that 


67 

we  do  not  have  a  biological  weapon  sensing  capability  that  we  can 
deploy  at  the  present  time.  And  we're  still  using  the  chemical  sen- 
sors that  the  earlier  witnesses  told  us  don't  work  properly. 

So  it  would  seem  to  me  that  if  you  put  all  that  together  and  if, 
in  fact,  the  North  Koreans  have  that  kind  of  a  capability,  somebody 
would  have  to  think  an  awfully  long  time  before  they  order  Amer- 
ican troops  into  a  combat  situation  where  we  can't  be  assured  that 
they're  going  to  have  adequate  protection  against  those  two  kinds 
of  weapons  systems.  Isn't  that  right? 

Dr.  Wallersteen.  I  know  that  Greneral  Luck,  the  Commander  of 
U.S.  Forces  Korea,  has  given  substantial  attention  to  this  problem. 
He  has  indicated  that  he  is  satisfied  with  the  readiness  of  his 
forces  to  anticipate  any  scenario  that  might  involve  the  use  of 
weapons  of  mass  destruction. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  I  hope  that's  right. 

When  I  went  back,  in  an  earlier  staff  review  I  asked  the  question 
of  how  many  of  the  senior  military  officers  that  were  directing  the 
war  were  up  in  the  area  where  the  chemical  alarms  were  going  off. 
I  found  that  very  few,  if  any,  were.  They  were  much  further  back, 
and  it  didn't  give  me  a  very  good  feeling. 

These  folks  think  there  are  adequate  protections,  I  kind  of  like 
the  picture  of  the  Civil  War  generals  that  got  on  the  horses  and 
got  out  in  front,  and  I'd  feel  a  little  more  comfortable  and  a  little 
more  confident  in  the  judgments  if  I  saw  some  of  the  major  signal 
callers  in  the  strategy  right  up  in  the  front  areas  breathing  the 
same  air,  working  with  the  same  chemical  detectors,  relying  on 
their  own  advice  in  terms  of  putting  their  own  health  at  risk.  I 
have  a  bit  of  bitter  feeling  about  it  because  I've  seen  so  many  sick 
veterans. 

So  I  would  hope  that  the  people  who  have  this  level  of  confidence 
would,  you  know,  we'd  see  them  right  up  there,  right  up  in  the 
front  when  the  going  is  unpleasant,  and  not  back  in  some  protected 
base  area  working  out  of  a  bunker. 

I  think  that's  all  I  have  for  you  right  now.  I  appreciate  your  com- 
ing. I'd  urge  you  to  stay  with  this.  I  think  it's  very  important  that 
we  catch  up  to  what  the  events  are  that  are  actually  taking  place 
in  the  world.  I  think  we're  behind  in  these  areas. 

Dr.  Wallerstein.  Thank  you.  Senator. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you. 

Dr.  Gordon  Oehler,  we'd  like  to  invite  you  to  come  forward.  You 
serve  as  the  Director  of  the  Nonproliferation  Center  at  the  Central 
Intelligence  Agency. 

We're  pleased  to  have  you  here.  I'd  like  to  have  you  give  us  your 
statement  at  this  time,  and  then  we'll  go  to  questions. 

OPENING  STATEMENT  OF  DR.  GORDON  C.  OEHLER,  DIREC- 
TOR, NONPROLIFERATION  CENTER,  CENTRAL  INTELLI- 
GENCE AGENCY,  WASHINGTON,  DC 

Dr.  Oehler.  Thank  you  very  much,  Mr.  Chairman. 

I'm  pleased  to  appear  before  you  this  afternoon  to  address  our 
concerns  about  the  proliferation  of  weapons  of  mass  destruction. 
I'm  specifically  going  to  address  Iraq's  efforts  to  obtain  critical  tech- 
nologies for  its'  weapons  program  in  the  years  preceding  the  Per- 


68 

sian  Gulf  War.  Finally,  HI  close  with  some  observations  regarding 
the  Export  Administration  Act. 

First  let  me  tell  you  briefly  what  we  knew  about  Iraq's  weapons 
of  mass  destruction  programs  prior  to  Desert  Storm. 

As  we  reported  extensively,  Iraq  had  aggressive  CW  and  BW  pro- 
grams prior  to  Desert  Storm.  The  Iraqis  used  nerve  and  blister 
agents  during  the  war  with  Iran,  and  as  you  will  recall,  they  also 
targeted  their  own  Kurdish  population  witn  chemical  weapons. 

In  mid-1990,  Iraq  had  one  primary  site  for  chemical  weapons 
production,  Al  Muthanna,  located  in  Smarra,  about  80  kilometers 
northwest  of  Baghdad. 

By  early  1990,  we  calculated  that  the  Al  Muthanna  facility  was 
capable  of  producing  more  than  2,000  tons  annually  of  the  blister 
agent  mustard  and  the  nerve  agent  Sarin.  Iraq  also  had  begun  to 
build  a  complex  of  chemical  production  plants  near  Al  Habbania, 
as  well  as  additional  CW  storage  sites. 

U.N.  inspectors  have  found  more  than  46,000  filled  munitions, 
including  30  warheads  for  ballistic  missiles,  bombs  filled  with  mus- 
tard gas,  and  nerve  gas  containers.  Additional  munitions  remain 
buried  today  in  bunkers  attacked  and  damaged  by  coalition  forces. 
The  U.N.  cannot  remove  them  safely.  The  inspections  have  also  re- 
vealed 5,000  tons  of  stockpiled  chemical  agents.  The  U.N.  is  only 
now  completing  the  task  of  dismantling  this  massive  program. 

With  regard  to  biological  weapons,  we  estimated,  prior  to  the 
start  of  the  war,  that  Iraq  had  a  stockpile  of  at  least  1  metric  ton 
of  biological  warfare  agents,  including  anthrax  and  botulinum 
toxin. 

Research  reports  released  by  the  Iraqis  to  the  first  U.N.  Biologi- 
cal Weapons  Inspection  Team  showed  highly  focused  research  at 
Salman  Pak  on  anthrax,  botulinum  toxin,  and  Clostridium 
perfringens.  U.N.  inspectors  believe  that  there  was  an  advanced 
military  biological  research  program  which  concentrated  on  these 
agents. 

The  Department  of  Defense  reports  that  no  chemical  or  biological 
warfare  munitions  were  found  stored  or  used  in  the  areas  occupied 
by  coalition  forces  during  Desert  Storm.  We  do  not  have  any  intel- 
ligence information  that  would  lead  us  to  conclude  otherwise. 

The  Chairman.  Now  let  me  just  stop  you  right  there. 

First  of  all,  everything  you've  said  so  far  has  been  very  helpful 
to  us,  and  much  of  this  is  new  information  on  the  record  in  a  de- 
classified form  for  the  first  time,  and  I'm  grateful  for  that.  I  think 
it  advances  the  level  of  knowledge,  and  in  the  end,  it  will  help  us 
get  to  the  bottom  of  some  of  the«e  sickness  problems  with  our  vet- 
erans. 

In  the  paragraph  you've  just  read,  that  no  chemical  or  biological 
warfare  munitions  were  found  stored  or  used  in  areas  occupied  by 
coalition  forces  during  Desert  Storm.  Now  that's  a  very  carefully 
worded  sentence.  As  I  read  that  sentence  and  heard  you  speak  that 
sentence,  that  does  not  cover,  as  I  read  it  and  that's  why  I  want 
the  clarification,  a  situation  where  chemical  or  biological  agents 
might  have  gotten  loose  in  some  way  and  gotten  into  these  zones. 
In  other  words,  you're  saying  you  found  no  evidence  that  they 
were  stored  or  used.  Used  to  me  conveys  some  effort  to  aim  at  our 
people  and  trigger  their  use  in  some  fashion,  but  that  sentence,  as 


69 

it's  written,  would  not,  unless  you  specifically  tell  me  otherwise,  in- 
dicate that  there  were  no  occasions  on  which  either  chemical 
agents  or  biological  agents,  by  one  means  or  another,  would  have 
gotten  into  areas  occupied  by  coalition  forces. 

Dr.  Oehler.  What  I'm  saying  very  carefully  here  is  that  the  De- 
partment of  Defense  reports  that  no  chemical  or  biological  warfare 
munitions  were  stored  or  used  in  areas  occupied  by  coalition  forces. 
This  is  a  Department  of  Defense  statement,  because  they  had  peo- 
ple on  the  ground  and  we  didn't,  for  the  most  part. 

The  Chairman.  Right. 

Dr.  Oehler.  What  I'm  trying  to  say  is  that  we  do  not  have  any 
intelligence  information  that  would  lead  us  to  conclude  otherwise. 

The  Chairman.  Yes.  I  understand  the  marriage  of  the  two  sen- 
tences and  that  we're  working  off  a  predicate  of  a  Defense  Depart- 
ment report.  But  I  want  to  come  back  now  to  the  chemical  alarms 
that  kept  going  off  in  various  areas  of  the  war  zone,  where  we  have 
all  these  firsthand  accounts  and  we  also  have  these  descriptive  ac- 
counts of  people  who  were  there  who  described  symptoms,  physical 
symptoms,  blistering  and  other  things  that  would  correlate  to  an 
exposure  to  a  chemical  agent,  say,  at  the  very  time  the  alarm  was 
going  off  saying  there  was  a  chemical  agent  in  the  area. 

The  CIA  is  not  saying  here  that  there  were  not  exposures  of 
American  service  personnel.  You're  not  making  a  categorical  state- 
ment that  there  were  not  exposures  of  American  service  personnel 
to  either  chemical  agents  or  biological  agents?  I  take  it  you  have 
no  way  of  knowing  on  a  firsthand  fashion? 

Dr.  Oehler.  That's  correct.  The  intelligence  information  we  have 
does  not  suggest  that  they  were  exposed  to  chemical  or  biological 
agents. 

The  Chairman.  But  didn't  I  just  hear  you  say  that,  for  the  most 
part,  you  didn't  have  your  own  people  there? 

Dr.  Oehler.  That's  right. 

The  Chairman.  So  you're  relying  on  the  Defense  Department? 

Dr.  Oehler.  In  terms  of  on-the-ground  surveys. 

We,  of  course,  have  intelligence  sources  that  talked  to  people  be- 
fore and  after  the  Gulf  War  about  what  they  knew  was  happening, 
and  we're  basing  our  intelligence  judgment  on  that  plus  technical, 
national  technical  means,  et  cetera. 

The  Chairman.  Would  the  CIA  have  a  theory  on  why  these 
chemical  alarms  kept  going  off? 

Dr.  Oehler.  I'm  certainly  not  an  expert  in  these  systems. 

The  Chairman.  But  don't  you  find  it  a  little,  I  mean,  we're  all 
logical  people  and  if  these  attacks  were  coming  and  explosions  were 
taking  place  and  the  alarms  were  going  off  and  people  were  told 
to  put  on  their  gear  and  so  forth,  and  yet,  after  the  fact,  we  say, 
well  there  were  never  any  chemical  agents  in  the  area,  how  does 
one  mesh  these  two  things? 

I  understand  you're  saying  you're  relying  essentially  on  Defense 
Department  reports,  but  I'm  looking  for  something  different  here. 
I'm  looking  for  a  categorical  denial  that  American  forces  were  ex- 
posed to  chemical  agents  or  biological  agents.  As  nearly  as  I  read 
this,  the  CIA  is  not  able  to  come  in  here  and  give  that  categorical 
denial  as  you  sit  here  at  this  moment.  Now  am  I  wrong  in  that? 


,70 

Dr.  Oehler.  What  we're  sajdng  is  that  we  have  no  evidence  that 
they  were,  and  it  cannot  be  any  stronger  than  that. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  have  a  theory  as  to  what  was  going  on 
then? 

Dr.  Oehler.  I  don't  know  if  my  theory  counts  much.  As  a  sci- 
entist, I  know  that  trying  to  design  sensors  to  detect  specific  chemi- 
cals and  not  others  is  a  rather  difficult  job  and  false  alarms  are  a 
way  of  business. 

1 11  also  note  that  the  battlefield  is  a  pretty  messy  place  with  in- 
coming rockets,  which  when  they  impact  have  unexpended  rocket 
fuel  that  vaporizes,  you  have  explosives  that  go  off,  vou  have  solid 
fuel  missiles  going  with  pollutants  in  the  air.  There  s  an  awful  lot 
of  what  would  be  hard-to-identify  chemicals  in  the  atmosphere  at 
any  time. 

The  Chairman.  So  much  of  the  Department  of  Defense  reports 
now  rest  on  the  fact  that  the  chemical  alarms  that  they  put  out 
there  that  kept  going  off  did  not  work  right.  Maybe  they  are  right 
that  they  did  not  work,  and  they  bought  a  lot  of  equipment  that 
did  not  work  right.  But  I  do  not  find  your  answer  satisfactory, 
quite  frankly,  and  let  me  just  be  blunt  about  it.  If  you  have  got 
some  information,  classified  or  other,  that  will  bear  out  what  you 
are  saying,  I  would  like  to  see  it.  I  would  like  to  see  it  all. 

Dr.  Oehler.  I  have  no  information  to  suggest,  that  leads  us  to 
the  conclusion  that  any  BW  or  CW  agents  were  used  against  coali- 
tion forces. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  you  see,  again,  that  is  a  very — that  is  what 
we  call  in  the  business  the  use  of  a  very  carefully  structured 
phrase.  Let  me  give  you  an  example.  Suppose  a  bombing  run  hits 
a  munitions  facility  and  blows  up  into  the  air  some  of  these  agents, 
either  gas  agents  or  biological  agents,  and  they  are  carried  by  the 
windstream  down  over  our  troops,  and  they  are  impacted  by  it.  Is 
that  a  use? 

Dr.  Oehler.  Let  me  address  those  two  specifically. 

The  Chairman.  First  of  all,  I  would  like  a  yes  or  a  no — in  terms 
of  the  way  you  are  using  the  word  "use."  Is  that  a  use  or  not  a  use? 

Dr.  Oehler.  I  would  call  that  exposure,  certainly. 

The  Chairman.  But  is  that  a  use  within  the  way  you  are  using 
it  here? 

Dr.  Oehler.  No,  but  I  would  not  sit  here  and  try  to  use  some 
legal  definition  to  get  around  a  problem  like  that.  I  do  not  have  any 
intelligence  information  to  suggest  that  coalition  forces  were  ex- 
posed, whether  it  be  by  intentional  use  or  by  accidental  discharge 
to  BW/CW  agents. 

Let  me  address  these  two  separately,  because  I  think  this  is  sig- 
nificant. The  coalition  forces  did  not  nnd  any  CW  agents  stored  in 
the  Kuwaiti  theater  of  operations,  with  the  exception  of  some  the 
U.N.  found  near  An  Nasiriyah. 

The  Chairman.  Right.  We  talked  about  that  earlier. 

Dr.  Oehler.  And,  if  in  fact  a  munition  blows  up  a  chemical  war- 
head storage  site  and  chemical  agents  are  released  into  the  atmos- 
phere, the  modeling  that  has  been  done  on  this  suggests  that  noth- 
ing is  going  to  go  further  than  maybe  10  miles.  So  if  your  American 
troops,  if  the  coalition  troops  are  much  farther  than  that,  they  are 
not  going  to  be  exposed  to  chemical  warfare. 


71 

Biological  is  a  very  different  situation,  because  particularly  if  it 
is  dispersed  at  a  high  altitude  the  biological  agents  can  go  very 
long  distances.  But  there  is  no  evidence  that  any  of  that  was  ever 
released. 

The  CHAraMAN.  Let  me  just  read  you  one  item  here,  because 
there  are  obviously  some  strong  differences  of  opinion  on  this. 

U.S.  military  doctrine  warns  that,  according  to  its  calculations,  the  use  of  a  nerve 
agent  against  a  target  area  of  no  more  than  a  dozen  hectares  can,  under  certain 
weather  conditions,  create  a  hazard  zone  downwind  of  up  to  100  kilometers  in 
length.  Within  this  downwind  area,  friendly  military  units  would  have  to  take  pro- 
tective measures. 

That  is  from  the  United  States  Department  of  the  Army  Field 
Manual,  100-5. 

Dr.  Oehler.  Yes.  The  difference  here  is,  I  was  speaking  of  a  mu- 
nitions storage  facility  on  the  ground,  and  what  that  refers  to  is  a 
chemical  attack  where  the  release  is  at  an  optimal  height  to  burst. 

The  Chairman.  We  were  asking  about  An  Nasiriyah  earlier 
today  and  how  close  these  were.  The  description  we  were  finally 
given  was  that  it  was  the  width  of  a  narrow  river.  Does  that  ring 
a  bell  with  you? 

Dr.  Oehler.  The  distance  between? 

The  Chairman.  The  distance  between  where  our  troops  were  and 
where  these  items  were  stored  was  the  distance  of  a  narrow  river. 

Dr.  Oehler.  The  troops  came  into  the  Tahji  Airfield  area,  which 
is,  to  my  recollection,  10  to  15  kilometers  from  An  Nasiriyah.  The 
storage  site  that  was  declared  to  the  U.N.,  where  the  U.N.  found 
chemical  weapons  stored,  is  just  slightly  south  of  the  31st  Parallel, 
which  is  a  little  bit  south  of  An  Nasiriyah  and  a  little  bit  north  of 
Tahji  Airfield. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  you  have  just  given  us  a  different  descrip- 
tion than  we  got  this  morning,  in  terms  of  what  the  proximity  was 
here. 

I  guess  then  what  you  are  saying  here  is — I  want  to  understand 
this  right,  because  you  know,  the  CIA  has  a  little  bit  of  a  credibility 
problem  itself  these  days  related  to  other  matters.  So  I  want  to 
make  sure  that  I  understand  precisely  what  it  is  you  are  saying 
and  not  saying. 

According  to  Central  Intelligence  information,  the  detections 
these  chemical  monitors  that  kept  going  off,  were  not  going  off  for 
reasons  of  the  fact  that  they  were  detecting  gas  agents,  chemical 
agents,  during  the  war.  It  was  something  else. 

Dr.  Oehler.  I  am  not  making  any  such  statement.  What  I  am 
saying  is 

The  Chairman.  You  are  not  saying  that? 

Dr.  Oehler.  No.  What  I  am  saying  is- 


The  Chairman.  So  it  could  have  been?  It  could  have  been? 

Dr.  Oehler.  We  were  not  on  the  ground.  We  are  taking  the  De- 
partment of  Defense's  word  for  that.  We  have  no  reason  not  to. 

The  Chairman.  So  we  are  back  to  the  Department  of  Defense. 

Dr.  Oehler.  On  the  operation  of  the  ground  sensors,  absolutely. 
The  only  thing  I  am  competent  to  talk  about 

The  Chairman.  I  think  you  have  just  given  me  my  answer.  You 
are  not  in  a  position  to  give  us  an  independent  answer  one  way  or 
the  other. 


72 

Dr.  Oehler.  The  only  part  I  can  give  you  an  answer  on  is,  what 
is  there  in  intelHgence  information  that  might  suggest  an  exposure 
to  these  agents  by  coaHtion  forces?  I  am  telling  you,  in  our  intel- 
ligence holdings,  we  do  not  see  anything. 

There  is  some  evidence  that  some  chemical  weapons  were  moved 
into  the  Kuwaiti  theater  of  operations,  but  then  withdrawn  prior 
to  the  beginning  of  the  air  attacks,  with  the  exception  of  the  ones 
that  were  found  still  in  An  Nasiriyah. 

The  Chairman.  They  were  moved  in  and  taken  out? 

Dr.  Oehler.  That  is  what  some  intelligence  suggests. 

The  Chairman.  Just  one  instance?  Several  instances? 

Dr.  Oehler.  No.  There  were  a  couple  of  instances  in  intelligence 
that  suggest  that.  We  do  not  know  moved  where  or  what. 

The  Chairman.  What  would  be  the  caliber  of  the  intelligence 
source  that  would  give  you  that  information? 

Dr.  Oehler.  That  was  a  generally  reliable  source. 

The  Chairman.  More  reliable  than  these  sensors? 

[Laughter.] 

Dr.  Oehler.  But  according  to  this  fragmentary  reporting,  these 
were  withdrawn  prior  to  the  start  of  the  air  attack. 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  ask  you  a  little  different  question.  In 
terms  of  the  qualitative  ability  of  the  CIA  to  do  its  own  independ- 
ent assessments,  to  really  be  cheek  to  jowl  with  this  problem,  on 
a  scale  of  1  to  10  in  terms  of  a  CIA  presence  in  the  area  to  really 
be  able  to  monitor  this  and  not  have  much  of  anything  slip 
through,  if  a  10  were  the  complete  ability  to  have  that  kind  of  a 
capability,  and  a  1  was  the  least  that  you  could  have,  where  would 
you  say  the  CIA's  capability  was  across  this  war  theater  at  that 
time? 

Dr.  Oehler.  We  were  not  in  a  position  on  the  ground,  nor 
tasked,  to  provide  monitoring  for  BW/CW,  because  that  was  the  re- 
sponsibility of  the  Department  of  Defense.  We  had  other  things 
that  we  were  trying  to  do  at  the  time. 

The  Chairman.  So  it  would  have  been  where,  at  the  level  of 
maybe  a  2? 

Dr.  Oehler.  We  were  not  there  basically  at  all.  That  was  not  our 
mission. 

The  Chairman.  It  was  less  than  2? 

Dr.  Oehler.  That  is  right. 

The  Chairman.  Maybe  1  or  between  0  and  1? 

Dr.  Oehler.  Now,  I  do  not  want  to  imply  that  the  intelligence 
community  does  not  have  the  capability  to  detect  CW/BW  agents. 

The  Chairman.  But  you  were  not  tasked  to  do  that  in  this  situa- 
tion? 

Dr.  Oehler.  That  is  correct.  That  is  correct. 

The  Chairman.  But  that  is  what  is  so  important,  and  it  has 
taken  us  awhile  to  get  to  that,  because  in  a  sense  you  did  not  have 
your  own  ability  to  do  that,  you  are  relying  in  a  sense  on  the  De- 
fense Department  who  did  have  that  task  of  doing  it. 

Also,  you  are  saying  that,  by  the  absence  of  anv  contradictory  in- 
formation to  what  they  are  saying,  even  though  you  had  a  very 
minor  way  of  doing  your  own  independent  measurement,  you  are 
not  in  a  position  to,  in  effect,  challenge  their  finding.  That  is  what 
I  hear  you  saying. 


73 

Dr.  Oehler.  That  is  right.  We  have  a  lot  of  intelligence  on  the 
build-up  of  the  chemical  warfare  capabilities,  pipes,  munitions,  and 
so  forth. 

The  Chairman.  I  can  see  that.  I  am  impressed  by  what  you  have 
said  up  here  in  that  area. 

Dr.  Oehler.  I  am  not  trying  to  say  that  there  was  no  informa- 
tion that  the  intelligence  community  was  collecting  at  all.  What  I 
am  trying  to  say  is,  out  of  all  this  stuff  that  we  have  gotten,  there 
is  not  anything  to  suggest  that  coalition  forces  were  exposed. 

The  Chairman.  But,  the  big  "but"  that  has  to  go  with  it  was,  the 
CIA  was  not  in  there  doing  the  monitoring  job  on  the  ground. 

Dr.  Oehler.  Absolutely.  That  is  correct. 

The  Chairman.  If  we  were  to  try  to  measure  that  on  a  scale  of 
1  to  10,  it  was  less  than  a  1.  So,  I  mean,  that  is  an  honest  answer. 

Dr.  Oehler.  Yes.  That  is  right. 

The  Chairman.  But  what  it  does  is,  it  cuts  the  guts  right  out  of 
that  paragraph  that  you  just  read. 

Dr.  Oehler.  Oh,  I  think  it  is 

The  Chairman.  Well,  I  know.  It  is  a  matter  of  opinion.  You  have 
an  opinion  you  are  bringing.  I  am  just  telling  you  what  my  opinion 
is  after  getting  to  that  bottom  line  in  laying  that  fact  against  that 
paragraph. 

Dr.  Oehler.  Fine. 

The  Chairman.  Let  us  agree  to  disagree  on  that,  and  go  on  to 
the  next  paragraph. 

Dr.  Oehler.  OK 

At  the  same  time  Iraq  was  developing  CW  and  BW  agents,  it  was 
also  developing  the  missile  delivery  capabilities.  By  the  time  of  the 
invasion  of  Kuwait,  Saddam  could  field  up  to  450  SCUD  type  sur- 
face-to-surface missiles.  The  Soviet-origin  SCUD's  originally  had  a 
range  of  300  kilometers,  but  Iraq  reconfigured  them  into  a  series 
of  other  missiles  with  ranges  of  up  to  750  kilometers.  Prior  to  the 
war,  Saddam  claimed  to  have  developed  and  tested  a  missile  with 
a  range  of  950  kilometers,  which  he  called  the  Al-Abbas,  but  dis- 
continued the  system  because  of  in-flight  stability  problems.  With 
regard  to  Iraq's  nuclear  program,  the  bombing  of  those  Iraq  nuclear 
research  reactors 

The  Chairman.  May  I  stop  you  one  more  time  because  you  are 
going  to  go  to  another  subject  and  it  is  almost  better  to  take  these 
as  we  go. 

Dr.  Oehler.  Sure.  OK 

The  Chairman.  If  you  take  the  fact  that  he  was  lengthening  the 
delivery  capability  of  these  SCUD's  and  had  them  apparently  with 
some  accuracy  up  to  a  range  of  750  kilometers,  I  do  not  know  if 
you  have  had  a  chance  to  review  some  of  the  first-person  accounts 
that  we  have  had  of  people,  veterans  out  there  who  feel  that  they 
were  in  an  area  where  a  SCUD  exploded  where  there  were  chemi- 
cal agents,  in  their  opinion,  as  part  of  that  SCUD  attack.  I  do  not 
know  if  you  have  had  a  chance  to  read  those. 

Dr.  Oehler.  I  saw  the  press  reports  of  that,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  All  right.  Jim,  I  am  just  wondering  if  you  can  tell 
us  where  those  locations  were.  Whether  the  SCUD's  would  have 
come,  could  have  come,  and  likely  did  come  from  a  launching  site 


74 

that  would  have  been  vsdthin  that  distance  of  950  kilometers.  I  as- 
sume it  would  have. 

Mr.  TuiTE.  My  understanding  is  that  there  were  SCUD  sites  up 
in  the  area  near  the  Euphrates  north  of  Kuwait. 

Dr.  Oehler.  There  were  SCUD  sites  all  the  way  into  Baghdad. 

Mr.  TuiTE.  OK  But  there  were  southerly  deployed 

Dr.  Oehler,  Southern  launches  as  well,  and  western. 

Mr.  TuiTE.  — ^And  those  with  750-kilometers  range  would  have 
reached  well  down  into  the  Saudi  peninsula,  correct? 

Dr.  Oehler.  That  is  right.  They  had  to  launch  them  from  fairly 
far  south  to  reach  down  to  coalition  forces  in  Saudi  Arabia.  They 
had  to  launch  them  from  pretty  far  west  to  reach  Tel  Aviv. 

Mr.  TuiTE.  To  reach  the  border  area  where  the  disputed  terri- 
tories were,  they  could  have  actually  been  launched  from  quite  a 
bit  north? 

Dr.  Oehler.  From  Baghdad. 

Mr.  TuiTE.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  Now,  Jim,  let  me  just  ask  here,  with  respect  to 
the  first-person  accounts  that  we  were  discussing  with  Senator 
Bennett  earlier  today,  with  the  belief  on  the  part  of  some  of  the 
people  in  the  area  where  the  explosion  happened,  that  a  SCUD 
came  in  with  this  kind  of  a  warhead,  do  you  recall  from  memory 
where  that  location  was  where  that  SCUD  attack  occurred? 

Mr.  TuiTE.  There  were  a  number  of  SCUD  attacks  in  the  report. 
But  each  and  every  attack,  each  and  every  event  that  is  listed  in 
the  report  is  within  SCUD  range. 

The  Chairman.  It  is  within  the  750  in  terms  of  the  extended 
range. 

Mr.  TuiTE.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  Would  it  be  within  the  300  range  which  was  the 
original  range? 

Dr.  Oehler.  No.  No,  it  would  not. 

The  Chairman.  OK.  So  the  extended  range  that  he  was  working 
on  would  have  put  him  in  a  position,  if  somebody  fired  one  of  these, 
to  at  least  get  it  to  that  site? 

Dr.  Oehler.  Yes. 

The  Chairman.  All  right.  Why  don't  you  go  ahead  then  with  the 
next  part  here? 

Dr.  Oehler.  OK 

With  regard  to  Iraq's  nuclear  program,  the  bombing  of  this  Iraq 
nuclear  research  reactor  by  the  Israelis  in  1981  drove  Saddam  to 
extreme  lengths  to  cover  diversity,  and  disperse  his  nuclear  activi- 
ties. IAEA  inspection  of  declared  nuclear  materials  continued  on  a 
regular  basis,  but  the  IAEA  did  not  inspect  any  of  the  undeclared 
facilities  associated  with  a  weapons  program. 

We  reported  extensively  on  the  existence  of  the  nuclear  weapons 
program,  but  post-war  inspections  added  quite  a  number  of  details 
to  our  knowledge  on  that  program. 

I  would  like  to  now  g^ve  you  a  sense  of  Iraq's  procurement  efforts 
and  patterns.  The  Iraqi  program  was  developed  gradually  over  the 
course  of  the  1980's.  By  the  time  of  the  invasion  it  had  become 
deeply  entrenched,  flexible,  and  well  orchestrated. 

Project  managers  for  the  weapons  of  mass  destruction  programs 
went  directly  to  vended  European  suppliers  for  the  majority  of 


75 

their  needs.  Throughout  the  1980's,  German  companies  headed  the 
list  of  preferred  suppliers  for  machinery,  technology,  and  chemical 
precursors. 

German  construction  companies  usually  won  the  contracts  to 
build  the  CW  facilities  in  Iraq,  and  Iraqi  procurement  agents  were 
sophisticated  in  exploiting  inconsistencies  in  local  export  laws  by 
targeting  countries  for  substances  and  technologies  that  were  not 
locally  controlled. 

In  the  pre-war  years,  the  dual-use  nature  of  many  of  these  facili- 
ties made  it  easier  for  Iraq  to  claim  that  the  chemical  precursors, 
for  example,  were  intended  for  agricultural  industries.  European 
firms,  arguing  that  the  facilities  in  Iraq  were  for  production  of  pes- 
ticides, built  a  Sumara  chemical  plant,  including  six  separate 
chemical  weapons  manufacturing  lines  between  1983  and  1986. 

European  middlemen  brokered 

The  Chairman.  Now,  may  I  ask  just  a  question  here? 

Dr.  Oehler.  Sure. 

The  Chairman.  This  is  all  extraordinarily  important  and  valu- 
able information.  Am  I  to  understand  that  the  CIA  would  have  had 
the  knowledge  of  this  going  on  contemporaneous  when  it  was  actu- 
ally happening?  In  other  words,  this  was  not  learned  later,  and  this 
is  not  a  retrospective  construction?  We  were  tracking  this,  or  we 
had  knowledge  of  this,  and  knowledge  of  this  would  have  been  at 
the  other  high  levels  of  Government  at  the  time  it  was  occurring? 

Dr.  Oehler.  That  is  right.  What  I  am  running  through  here  is 
what  we  knew  at  the  time,  and  what  we  had  reported  to  our  cus- 
tomers at  the  time.  We  had  been  quite  aware  of  Iraq's  chemical 
weapons  development  program  from  its  very  early  inception. 

The  Chairman.  I  take  it  the  CIA  must  have  had  a  concern  about 
it  to  have  kind  of  zeroed  in  on  it  to  that  degree? 

Dr.  Oehler.  Very  much  so.  And  that  was  reported  to  our  cus- 
tomers, and  our  customers  attempted  to  take  actions. 

The  Chairman.  It  would  have  been  reported  also  to  the  Presi- 
dent, to  the  Secretary  of  Defense,  the  Secretary  of  State,  I  assume, 
as  a  matter  of  course? 

Dr.  Oehler.  Yes,  sir.  Those  are  our  customers,  sir. 

The  Chairman.  All  right. 

Dr.  Oehler.  Continuing  on  that:  European  middlemen  brokered 
chemical  precursor  deals  for  Iraq  under  the  pretext  that  the  mate- 
rials were  intended  for  pesticide  plants.  A  Dutch  firm  purchased 
supplies  from  major  chemical  firms  around  the  world,  supplying 
the  Chemical  Importation  and  Distribution  State  Enterprise  in 
Baghdad  in  the  1970's,  and  in  the  1980's  supplying  the  Iraqi  State 
Establishment  for  Pesticide  Production,  both  cover  names  for  the 
CW  program. 

The  middlemen  supplied  dual-use  chemical  precursors  including 
monochlorobenzine,  ethyl  alcohol,  and  thiodiclocol.  When  the  Iraqis 
requested  phosphorous  oxychloride,  a  nerve  agent  precursor 
banned  for  export  under  Dutch  law  without  explicit  permission,  the 
supplier  balked,  and  drew  this  request  to  the  attention  of  Dutch 
authorities.  Subsequent  Dutch  investigations  found  that  two  other 
Dutch  firms  were  involved  in  brokering  purchases  of  chemical  pre- 
cursors. 


76 

Iraq  exploited  businessmen  and  consortia  willing  to  violate  the 
export  laws  of  their  own  countries.  As  has  been  indicated  in  the 
press  and  television  reports,  the  Consen  Group,  a  consortium  of 
European  missile  designers,  engineers,  and  businessmen,  estab- 
lished a  network  of  front  companies  to  cover  its  role  as  project  di- 
rector of  an  Argentine,  Egyptian,  Iraqi  sponsored  Condor  II  ballis- 
tic missile  program. 

Iraqi  procurement  officers,  knowing  full  well  the  licensing 
thresholds,  requested  items  that  fell  just  under  the  denial  thresh- 
olds, but  nevertheless  would  suffice.  Prior  to  Desert  Storm,  U.S. 
regulations  on  the  export  of  these  technologies  were  drafted  to 
meet  U.S.  technical  specifications  and  standards.  Technologies  of  a 
lower  standard  worked  just  as  well,  and  permitted  Iraq  to  obtain 
the  goods  and  technology  consistent  with  Commerce  Department 
regulations. 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  just  stop  you  again.  This  is  again  very 
valuable,  and  I  appreciate  your  presenting  it  for  us  so  we  can  have 
it  on  the  record.  Before  we  get  too  far  past  it,  you  made  a  reference 
to  phosphorous  oxychloride.  What  agent  is  this  a  precursor  for? 

Dr.  Oehler.  Sarin  [GF]. 

The  Chairman.  Also,  well  I  have  interrupted  you  here.  This 
backs  up  even  further,  but  when  you  acknowledged  that  Saddam 
Hussein  had  SCUD  chemical  warheads,  where  did  he  get  those? 

Dr.  Oehler.  They  made  them  themselves. 

The  Chairman.  They  made  their  own. 

Dr.  Oehler.  They  had  quite  a  missile  refurbishment  extension 
plant  where  they  took  the  SCUD's  and  added  in  extra  lengths  and 
the  fuel  tanks,  changed  the  warheads,  and  had  a  capability  to 
make  their  own  warheads. 

The  Chairman.  Were  the  Russians  helping  them  with  this? 

Dr.  Oehler.  No.  There  is  no  evidence  of  any  Russian  involve- 
ment at  all  in  this. 

The  Chairman.  You  see,  part  of  the  picture  that  emerges  here — 
this  is  really  an  extraordinary  story  that  you  are  sharing  with  us, 
because,  according  to  your  testimony,  the  CIA  was  tracking  this  in 
real  time  as  it  was  happening,  and  had  a  great  concern  about  it, 
and  had  figured  out  that  this  robust  program  on  chemical  weapons 
and  these  other  areas  was  going  forward. 

Yet,  as  we  get  down  further  in  time,  we  are  going  to  find  out 
that,  as  Saddam  Hussein  needed  other  items  to  go  into  his  war  ma- 
chine, that  he  actually  came  and  got  some  from  us,  particularly  in 
the  biological  warfare  area,  that  required  licensing. 

So  you  wonder  how  anybody  in  the  licensing  regime  who  was 
reading  the  CIA  reports  at  the  time  and  who  could  see  this  buildup 
of  this  kind  of  weapons  potential,  you  would  think  that  people 
would  have  been  very,  very  reluctant  to  approve  anything  that 
could  go  into  a  weapons  production  system  of  this  kind.  You  would 
think  that  this  would  have  had  everybody  on  full  alert  to  be  ex- 
tremely careful  about  what  is  or  is  not  licensed  for  shipment  into 
this  kind  of  a  regime.  Is  not  that  the  logic  of  learning  this? 

Dr.  Oehler.  Well,  what  I  would  like  to  point  out  in  the  next  sec- 
tion of  this  is  that  there  really  was  not  much  involvement  of  U.S. 
firms,  as  we  have  seen.  If  I  could  go  through  that  a  little  bit,  and 
then  we  can  stop  and  talk  about  the  whole  thing. 


77 

The  Chairman.  Right,  right,  right. 

Dr.  Oehler.  Continuing  on:  Regarding  the  involvement  of  United 
States  firms,  we  were  watching  Iraq's  programs  very  carefully,  and 
it  was  clear  that  the  major  players  assisting  Saddam  were  not 
American  firms.  They  were  principally  Europeans.  We  saw  little  in- 
volvement of  U.S.  firms  in  Saddam's  weapons  of  mass  destruction 
program. 

In  discussing  this  issue,  we  should  remember  that  by  law  the 
CIA  as  a  foreign  intelligence  agency,  does  not  focus  on  U.S.  per- 
sons, to  include  U.S.  companies.  By  this  definition,  companies 
founded  by  foreign  nationals  and  incorporated  in  the  United  States 
are  treated  as  U.S.  companies. 

This  is  not  to  say  that  we  did  not  occasionally  come  across  infor- 
mation on  a  U.S.  person  that  was  collected  incidentally  to  our  for- 
eign intelligence  target  overseas;  we  did.  But  when  we  did,  and 
when  there  was  a  possibility  of  a  violation  of  U.S.  law,  we  were  ob- 
ligated to  turn  our  information  over  to  the  Justice  Department. 

The  Chairman.  Now,  does  that  mean  then,  going  back  to  the 
prior  paragraph,  that  there  would  have  been  companies  founded  by 
foreign  nationals  incorporated  in  the  U.S.  supplying  some  of  these 
materials,  but  they  would  be  outside  the  scope  of  what  you  could 
properly  zero  in  on? 

Dr.  Oehler.  We  are  not  permitted  by  law  to  target  the  domestic 
activities  of  those  companies  or  individuals  in  those  companies. 

The  Chairman.  Right.  So  if  you  stumbled  upon  it  some  other 
way,  that  did  not  mean  you  were  not  entitled  to  know  that  fact, 
but  you  could  not  as  a  matter  of  investigative  focus  go  after  these 
foreign  firms  incorporated  in  the  United  States  to  really  find  out 
the  degree  to  which  they  might  be  doing  business  with  Saddam 
Hussein? 

Dr.  Oehler.  That  is  right  to  the  extent  that  we  cannot  engage 
in  law  enforcement  or  target  their  activities  in  the  United  States. 

The  Chairman.  Do  we  have  any  reason  to  believe  or  know  that 
there  were  such  firms  founded  by  foreign  nationals  incorporated  in 
the  United  States  that,  in  fact,  did  ship  items  like  this  to  Saddam 
Hussein? 

Dr.  Oehler.  As  I  say  here,  we  did  provide  what  we  call  alert 
memos  to  Commerce,  Justice,  Treasury,  and  the  FBI  on  a  number 
of  possible  questionable  instances.  It  is  not  up  to  us  to  make  the 
legal  judgment,  but  to  point  out  that  there  is  information  that  they 
need  to  look  at. 

The  Chairman.  I  see. 

Dr.  Oehler.  These  memos  resulted  whenever  this  incidentally 
collected  information  indicated  that  U.S.  firms  had  been  targeted 
by  foreign  governments  of  concern,  or  were  involved  in  possible  vio- 
lations of  U.S.  law. 

Between  1984  and  1990,  CIA's  Office  of  Scientific  and  Weapons 
Research  provided  5  memos  covering  Iraqis'  dealings  with  United 
States  firms  on  purchases,  discussions,  or  visits  that  appear  to  be 
related  to  weapons  of  mass  destruction  programs. 

The  Chairman.  Are  those  classified  documents? 

Dr.  Oehler.  Yes,  they  are. 

Can  we  go  on  to  export  controls? 

The  Chairman.  Yes,  please. 


78 

Dr.  Oehler.  Continuing:  Turning  to  export  controls,  the  intel- 
ligence community  was  asked  by  the  Department  of  Commerce  dur- 
ing the  1980's  to  review  export  license  applications  primarily  when 
the  licenses  had  significance  to  intelligence  collection  equities. 

Here  the  concern  was  not  so  much  Iraq,  but  whether  there  was 
a  possibility  the  equipment  would  be  diverted  to  the  Soviet  Union 
or  other  communist  countries,  as  you  heard  from  Dr.  Wallerstein 
a  little  earlier. 

Prior  to  1991,  there  were  four  instances  in  which  the  Department 
of  Commerce  sought  information  on  Iraqi  export  license  applica- 
tions, all  dated  in  1986.  These  applications  involved  computer  tech- 
nologies and  image  processors. 

For  some  of  these,  we  reported  no  derogatory  information  on  the 
end  user.  In  one  case,  we  referred  the  Department  of  Commerce  to 
a  classified  intelligence  report. 

After  evidence  mounted  in  the  mid-1980's  about  the  use  of  chemi- 
cal warfare  in  the  Iran-Iraq  war,  the  United  States  began  to  put 
into  effect  unilateral  controls  on  exports  of  chemical  precursors  to 
Iraq  and  other  countries  suspected  of  having  chemical  warfare  pro- 
grams. 

The  United  States  and  several  other  industrialized  nations  joined 
what  is  called  the  Australia  Group  to  establish  more  uniform  li- 
censing controls  for  the  export  of  several  chemical  weapons  precur- 
sors. Since  then,  more  nations  have  been  brought  into  the  Aus- 
tralia Group,  and  recently  controls  have  been  added  for  chemical 
equipment,  certain  pathogens,  and  biological  equipment. 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  again  just  stop  you  here  because  you  are 
about  to  go  to  the  next  paragraph.  You  go  "since  the  war,"  and  you 
go  on  with  some  observations  there. 

My  sense  for  it  at  this  point  is  that  the  CIA  had  a  pretty  good 
fix  on  the  biological,  chemical,  and  nuclear  weapons  capability  of 
Saddam  Hussein.  You  were  tracking  it.  You  were  watching  these 
international  firms.  You  had  seen  Saddam  Hussein  in  a  sense  go 
underground  with  some  of  his  activities  after  the  Israelis  came  over 
and  bombed  some  of  his  facilities  in  the  early  1980's.  And  you  were 
paying  serious  attention  to  it.  You  obviously  saw  it  as  a  real  prob- 
lem, and  you  were  on  top  of  it. 

Would  it  be  fair  for  me  to  say  that,  before  the  outbreak  of  the 
war,  the  CIA  was  convinced,  and  had  well-documented  the  fact, 
that  Saddam  Hussein  had  an  advanced  and  dangerous  chemical 
warfare,  biological  warfare  capability  underway? 

Dr.  Oehler.  Yes,  sir.  I  do  not  think  anyone  will  doubt  that. 

The  Chairman.  I  think  the  record  is  clear  on  that.  I  think  it  is 
to  the  credit  of  the  CIA  that  it  saw  that  and  knew  that  and  was 
reporting  that  in  real  time. 

It  is  my  understand — and  you  may  or  may  not  know  the  answer 
to  this,  but  if  you  do,  I  would  like  you  to  give  it — that  the  Defense 
Intelligence  Agency  did  not  have  either  that  assessment  or  the 
same  assessment  in  terms  of  the  capabilities  of  the  Iraqis  in  that 
area? 

Dr.  Oehler.  No.  The  Defense  Intelligence  Agency  was  part  of  the 
intelligence  community.  I,  at  the  time  of  the  beginning  of  the  Gulf 
War,  was  the  National  Intelligence  Officer  for  Science,  Technology, 
and  Proliferation.  So  my  job  there  was  to  pull  together  common 


79 

community  positions  on  these  matters.  The  Defense  Intelligence 
Agency  did  not  have  any  alternative  views  on  this.  Their  estimate 
was  that  these  programs  were  dangerous  as  well. 

The  Chairman.  So  from  your  knowledge,  you  are  saying  the  DIA 
also  felt  this  was  a  real  threat.  Was  their  level  of  knowledge  up  to 
yours,  the  CIA's? 

Dr.  Oehler.  Yes,  sir.  We  do  not  hold  any  information  from  each 
other. 

The  Chairman.  Now,  in  terms  of  war  planning,  if  somebody  is 
anticipating  going  in  and  shutting  down  Iraq,  moving  them  out  of 
Kuwait  after  they  had  moved  into  Kuwait,  and  then  backing  them 
up  and  shutting  down  most  of  their  military  capability  in  Iraq, 
would  the  Defense  planning  of  that  come  off  this  combined  assess- 
ment, your  assessment,  the  CIA's,  and  the  DIA's  assessment? 

Where  would  the  Defense  planners  go  to  get  the  picture  of  what 
the  troops  might  face  to  the  extent  we  had  to  go  in  and  liberate 
first  Kuwait  and  then  go  into  Iraq,  in  the  way  of  biological  and 
chemical  weapons  risk? 

Dr.  Oehler.  Of  course,  the  planning  is  done  by  the  Military  Op- 
erations Forces.  What  information  do  they  have?  They  have  all  of 
this  information.  Now,  whether  they  are  ooligated  to  weigh  the  De- 
fense Intelligence  Agency's  estimates  over  someone  else's,  I  do  not 
know.  You  will  have  to  ask  them.  But  I  did  not  see  any  significance 
difference  it  would  have  made,  any  kind  of  a  difference  in  the  cam- 
paign. 

The  Chairman.  So  I  guess  you  are  saying  to  us  then  that  the  De- 
fense planners  that  would  have  had  to  put  together  a  war  strategy 
had  quite  complete  knowledge  as  to  the  biological  and  chemical 
weapons  capability  that  he  had  been  working  on  over  a  period  of 
time  and  refining? 

Dr.  Oehler.  I  do  not  think  any  Defense  planner  or  any  policy- 
maker will  say  they  have  complete  enough  knowledge. 

The  Chairman.  I  understand. 

Dr.  Oehler.  There  are  certainly  pieces  of  our  knowledge  that 
were  missing.  What  was  clear  was  the  existence  of  the  program 
and  the  extent. 

The  Chairman.  Let  me  ask  you  this.  Did  the  CIA  for  its  part 
know  ahead  of  the  war  that  there  were  going  to  be  the  volume  of 
these  particular  kinds  of  weapons  systems  tnat  were  found  after 
the  war  that  you  cite  in  the  early  part  of  your  testimony? 

Was  there  a  CIA  estimate  that  would  have  said  that,  "Our  expec- 
tation is  that  there  would  be  at  least  40,000  field  munitions,  in- 
cluding 30  warheads  for  ballistic  missiles,  bombs?"  How  discreet 
would  your  assessment  of  his  capability  have  been  before  the  war? 
Is  there  that  kind  of  a  document? 

Dr.  Oehler.  Our  assessments  were  based  primarily  on  the  pro- 
duction capability,  and  on  how  much — as  I  mentioned,  they  could 
be  producing  2,000  tons  a  year.  And  then,  what  would  you  do  with 
that?  We  did  not  have  it  broken  down  by  so  many  artillery  shells 
and  so  forth. 

The  Chairman.  Do  you  know  if  anybody  would  have  had  a  mock- 
up,  if  you  will,  of  this  kind  of  a  deliverable  weapons  system  capabil- 
ity that  was  found  after  the  war,  before  the  war? 

Dr.  Oehler.  A  mockup? 


80 

The  Chairman.  In  other  words,  some  very  smart  person  Hke 
yourself  had  been  tracking  this  for  a  decade  and  looking  at  all  the 
stuff  that  they  were  buying  from  the  European  suppliers,  and  with 
aerial  photographs,  surveillance,  and  onsite  sources  or  whatever 
else  we  had,  would  have  said,  "They  have  been  cranking  out  this 
kind  of  a  warhead  now  over  a  period  of  time,  and  we  think  they 
do  3  a  week,  or  3  a  month,  and  we  now  think  they  have  in  their 
stockpile  the  following." 

So  when  a  Defense  planner  turns  to  you  and  says,  "Wait  a 
minute.  We  are  going  to  send  all  these  troops  in  here.  What  are 
we  likely  to  face  in  terms  of  their  stockpile  of  chemical  weapons 
and  biological  weapons?"  How  refined  would  the  internal  estimate 
have  been  based  on  all  this  other  work,  that  would  have  said,  'This 
is  what  we  think  he  has.  got." 

Dr.  Oehler,  It  was  pretty  good  in  terms  of  the  capability.  The 
reason  was  we  watched  Iraq  use  CW  in  its  war  with  Iran.  In  the 
latter  part  of  that  war,  in  the  Majnoon  Islands  at  the  very  end  of 
the  campaign,  they  used  a  tremendous  amount  of  agent.  We  could 
track  that  and  we  could  see  then  how  they  could  use  that  against 
coalition  forces  if  they  chose  to  do  so. 

The  Chairman.  Did  they  use  biological  weapons? 

Dr.  Oehler.  No,  they  did  not.  Let  me  put  my  same  caveat  on 
here.  We  have  no  evidence  that  they  did.  We  have  a  lot  of  evidence 
on  what  they  used,  and  we  did  not  see  any  use  of  BW. 

The  Chairman.  Is  there  any  information  to  indicate  that  Iraq 
was  coordinating  research  on  genetically  altered  microorganisms? 
There  is  a  concern  because  of  the  U.S.  export  of  E-coli  and  other 
genetic  materials. 

Dr.  Oehler.  We  have  not  seen  that  as  part  of  their  BW  research 
program.  At  least  if  they  looked  at  it,  it  did  not  get  very  far  along 
to  our  knowledge.  They  did  those  three  agents  that  we  talked 
about,  and  most  of  the  production  was — all  the  production  we  know 
of  was  in  botulinum  toxin  and  anthrax,  which  is  bad  enough,  by 
the  way. 

The  Chairman.  No,  I  understand. 

We  are  trying  to  push  this  envelope  out  as  far  as  we  can  in  terms 
of  what  was  going  on  here,  recognizing  that  our  own  Government 
is  compartmentalized.  You  know  a  certain  amount  and  you  go  up 
to  a  certain  point.  Then  somebody  else,  in  a  sense,  has  a  respon- 
sibility that  bridges  on  from  that  point  and  goes  on  into  another 
direction.  For  example,  the  CIA  did  not  design  the  chemical  sensors 
that  did  not  work.  Hopefully,  the  CIA,  if  it  was  designing  a  chemi- 
cal sensor,  would  have  designed  one  that,  when  it  went  off  it  was 
not  a  false  alarm,  but  it  was  a  real  alarm. 

Dr.  Oehler.  I  would  just  mention  that  we  in  the  intelligence 
community  have  needs  for  CW  and  BW  sensors  as  well,  and  have 
been  a  bit  frustrated  by  our — I  will  include  ourselves  here — inabil- 
ity to  develop  the  technology  rapidly  enough  to  satisfy  our  needs. 
That  is  the  same  as  the  Department  of  Defense  has. 

The  Chairman.  I  think  generally  offensive  weapons  capability 
can  move  faster  than  defensive  weapons  capability,  and  especially 
if  you  have  somebody  that  is  diabolically  minded  enough,  like  Sad- 
dam Hussein,  and  who  is  organizing  this  very  well-developed  weap- 
ons development  system. 


81 

You  have  described  here  already,  in  what  you  have  said,  a  very 
sophisticated  operation,  where  they  knew  what  they  were  doing. 
They  were  working  through  these  European  suppHers.  They  were 
staying  under  the  thresholds.  They  were  figuring  out  how  to  put 
together  what  they  wanted.  They  certainly  were  field-testing  the 
weapons.  They  field-tested  them  on  the  Kurds,  and  apparently  on 
some  Iranians  as  well.  They  were  lengthening  their  missile  range. 

This  is  a  very  sophisticated  operation  in  this  area.  They  had  gone 
underground  to  do  a  certain  amount  of  it  through  these  front  oper- 
ations because  they  had  gotten  punished  by  the  Israelis. 

So  if  you  again  just  apply  the  logic,  you  would  imagine  that  any 
operation  as  sophisticated  as  this,  doing  this  many  things,  probably 
mixing  chemical  and  biological  cocktails  as  well — this  is  my  own 
theory — was  probably  out  on  the  forefront  of  what  they  could  de- 
velop with  respect  to  their  offensive  capability. 

I  mean,  I  cannot  imagine  somebody  this  creative  suddenly  loses 
the  creative  spark  when  it  comes  to  figuring  out,  how  do  we  get 
more  bang  for  the  buck?  Or  how  do  we  find  a  more  powerful  weap- 
on, or  a  less  expensive  weapon,  or  one  that  is  easier  to  deliver,  or 
one  that  we  can  somehow  disseminate  in  a  way  that  maybe  they 
will  not  even  find  out? 

Dr.  Oehler.  No.  These  are  centrally-directed  programs  with  the 
highest  authority  behind  them. 

The  Chairman.  But  they  seem  to  be  very  cleverly  designed  as 
well.  I  am  not  saying  that  they  are  as  sophisticated  as  we  might 
be,  but  I  am  struck  by  the  sophistication  of  the  system. 

Dr.  Oehler.  They  learned  this  over  a  period  of  years  in  the 
1980's,  but  they  became  masters  at  the  procurement  networks.  Of 
course,  there  are  companies  that  try  to  help  them  with  that,  too, 
because  the  profits  were  pretty  large. 

The  Chairman.  Well,  you  know  I  really  get  a  bad  case  of  heart- 
burn when  I  find  out  that  these  export  licenses,  not  long  before  we 
actually  find  ourselves  in  a  war  with  these  people,  were  being  ap- 
proved by  our  own  Commerce  Department. 

We  had  a  situation — I  do  not  know  if  you  are  aware  of  this  or 
not — but  we  had  a  hearing  in  the  late  fall  of  1992.  We  were  at  that 
time  looking  at  the  shipment  of  devices  that  were  incorporated  into 
Iraq's  nuclear  weapons  capability.  We  found  that  some  licenses  had 
been  granted  by  our  own  Commerce  Department  to  ship  certain 
dual-use  items  over  there.  In  fact,  some  of  them  had  been  shipped 
directly  to  Iraqi  military  installations,  which  should  have  been  a 
warning  sign  that  they  were  not  designed  for  peaceful  use  by  some- 
body who  is  a  professor  in  agriculture  over  in  a  university  some- 
where. 

When  that  document,  because  it  is  a  written  document,  was 
sought  by  the  Congress — the  Senate,  and  the  House — that  particu- 
lar document  was  altered.  The  exact  text  of  the  words  on  the  docu- 
ment, which  indicated  that  it  was  to  be  shipped  to  an  Iraqi  military 
unit,  those  words  were  deleted,  and  something  else  was  put  in  its 
place  to  create  a  false  picture.  That  document  was  sent  up  to  the 
Congress  as  a  deliberately  misleading  document. 

Now,  the  person  who  was  in  charge  of  that  area  in  the  Commerce 
Department — this  was  late  in  1992,  there  was  a  Presidential  race 


82 

going  on,  so  that  heightened  the  sensitivity  of  all  of  this — was  con- 
veniently out  of  the  country. 

We  tried  to  get  hold  of  tnis  person  to  bring  them  in  as  a  witness 
to  explain  how  this  document  had  gotten  altered  to  give  a  false  ap- 
pearance and  impression.  We  could  never  get  this  person  because 
the  person  was  outside  the  country  and  hiding  out  somewhere.  So 
the  election  came  and  went,  and  the  Bush  people  departed  town, 
so  we  never  did  talk  to  that  particular  witness. 

I  only  cite  that  because  we  have  had  experiences,  direct  experi- 
ences, where  official  Government  records  were  doctored  and  given 
to  us  to  mislead  us  on  shipments  that  were  going  into  the  center 
structure  of  Saddam  Hussein's  military  operation. 

I  am  not  talking  about  distant  history.  I  am  talking  about  some- 
thing that  happened  directly  within  the  scope  of  what  we  are  here 
talking  about. 

This  was  a  pretty  sophisticated  operation.  It  seems  to  me  that, 
if  the  CIA  knew  as  much  as  it  did,  and  everybody  else  did,  it  is 
hard  for  me  to  understand  why  we  were  aiding  and  abetting  this 
guy  and  authorizing  these  shipments.  Doesn't  that  seem  a  little 
strange? 

Dr.  Oehler.  Well,  the  only  thing  I  can  say  is  that,  since  the  Gulf 
War  there  have  been  a  lot  of  enhancements  in  the  licensing  process 
and  in  the  export  controls.  I  think  everyone  realizes  the  signifi- 
cance of  the  problem. 

The  Chairman.  Why  don't  you  go  ahead?  We  are  getting  down 
near  the  end  of  your  statement.  Why  don't  I  let  you  finish  it? 

Dr.  Oehler.  All  right.  As  I  was  saying:  Since  the  Gulf  War,  U.S. 
export  controls  on  CW/BW  have  been  considerably  strengthened. 
Enforcement  mechanisms  involving  several  Federal  agencies  have 
been  put  into  place.  The  scope  of  the  regulations  have  been  broad- 
ened considerably. 

In  1991,  export  controls  were  tightened  to  require  validated  li- 
censes for  all  dual-use  equipment  being  exported  to  end  users  of 
proliferation  concern.  Intelligence  information  is  often  the  basis  for 
this  determination.  This  catch-all  provision  has  served  as  a  model 
for  other  countries  interested  in  joining  the  U.S.  Government's  non- 
proliferation  efforts. 

The  intelligence  community  has  an  expanded  role  in  this 
strength  and  export  control  regime.  We  work  with  the  Department 
of  State-led  interagency  forums  to  control  sensitive  technologies 
and  equipment. 

Our  analysis  of  international  trade  mechanisms  used  to  transfer 
technologies  from  suppliers  to  consumers  is  provided  to  the  U.S. 
policy,  enforcement,  and  intelligence  communities. 

The  Department  of  Commerce  now  brings  the  intelligence  com- 
munity into  a  large  percentage  of  its  license  reviews. 

Let  me  say  a  brief  word  about  the  control  of  missile  and  nuclear 
technologies.  The  Missile  Technology  Control  Regime,  the  MTCR, 
went  into  effect  in  April  1987,  with  the  participation  of  the  United 
States,  United  Kingdom,  Canada,  Italy,  France,  Japan,  and  West 
Germany,  all  the  leading  suppliers  of  missile-related  technologies. 

Initially  the  MTCR  controlled  ballistic  missiles  and  their  compo- 
nents that  are  capable  of  delivering  a  500-kilogram  warhead  to  a 
range  of  300  or  more  kilometers.  In  recent  years,  the  scope  of  the 


83 

MTCR  has  been  expanded  to  include  any  unmanned  system,  with 
any  range  or  payload,  if  it  is  beUeved  to  be  intended  for  use  with 
weapons  of  mass  destruction. 

As  you  know,  the  Nuclear  Nonproliferation  Treaty,  most  often 
known  by  its  initials,  the  NPT,  provides  the  global  framework  to 
control  the  spread  of  nuclear  weapons.  Nations  that  have  joined  the 
NPT  pledge  not  to  transfer,  seek  access  to,  or  assist  the  spread  of 
nuclear  weapons.  The  transfer  of  nuclear  materials  is  covered  by 
safeguards  enforced  by  the  International  Atomic  Energy  Agency. 
Over  the  years,  members  of  the  NPT  have  developed  lists  of  re- 
stricted items  and  technologies. 

The  United  States  adheres  to  these  controls,  and  has  introduced 
its  own  restrictions  on  the  spread  of  fissile  materials  necessary  for 
nuclear  weapons:  plutonium  and  enriched  uranium. 

The  final  issue  I  would  like  to  address  is  the  legislation  affecting 
the  export  controls  and  other  nonproliferation  measures,  specifi- 
cally the  provisions  the  intelligence  community  needs  in  such  legis- 
lation. 

The  first  thing  I  would  say,  Mr.  Chairman,  is  that  the  bill  you 
introduced  at  the  request  of  the  Administration  incorporates  provi- 
sions which  address  the  intelligence  community's  concerns  in  the 
area  of  chemical,  biological,  and  missile  nonproliferation  measures. 
We  worked  closely  with  the  other  agencies  that  developed  this  bill, 
and  have  endorsed  the  final  result. 

Accordingly,  I  would  strongly  urge  that  these  provisions  be  re- 
tained in  the  final  bill  passed  by  the  Senate.  To  aid  the  Commit- 
tee's deliberations,  I  would  like  to  outline  the  community's  equities 
in  this  area. 

In  disseminating  our  intelligence,  one  of  our  primary  responsibil- 
ities and  duties  is  to  protect  the  sources  of  the  intelligence,  wheth- 
er human  or  technical,  and  the  methods  by  which  it  was  collected. 
Sources  and  methods  are  most  at  risk  when  intelligence  informa- 
tion is  directly  or  indirectly  made  public.  The  compromise  of 
sources  and  methods  inevitably  results  in  a  diminished  capacity  to 
collect  intelligence  for  the  future. 

The  most  dramatic  consequences  of  a  compromise  of  intelligence 
information  is  the  threat  of  the  life  of  an  asset,  but  there  are  other 
significant  consequences.  For  example,  if  we  have  intelligence  indi- 
cating that  a  particular  overseas  company  is  actually,  say  a  Libyan 
front  company,  we  can  often  watch  that  company  to  learn  more 
about  Libya's  programs  and  its  acquisition  network. 

The  U.S.  Government  action  that  pubHcly  identifies  the  company 
will  often  result  in  the  company  shutting  down  and  reopening  else- 
where under  a  different  name.  Identifying  this  new  company  can 
be  difficult.  But  meanwhile,  we  have  lost  a  window  into  the  broad- 
er proliferation  activity. 

This  is  not  to  say  that  intelligence  should  never  form  the  basis 
for  overt  U.S.  Grovernment  action.  To  the  contrary,  it  quite  often 
does,  and  I  feel  strongly  that  providing  this  actionable  intelligence 
is  of  the  highest  priority  for  the  intelligence  community. 

What  is  needed,  however,  is  the  flexibility  to  take  the  action  that 
will  best  achieve  our  nonproliferation  objectives,  which  in  some 
cases  may  mean  holding  off  on  overt  U.S.  Government  actions  to 
protect  the  nonproliferation  sources  and  methods. 


84 

The  first  goal  is  to  ensure  the  sanctions,  regimes  established  to 
punish  proliferators,  permit  the  President  sufficient  discretion  in 
the  imposition  of  sanctions  to  protect  intelligence  sources  and 
methods.  The  second  goal  is  to  ensure  that  the  Executive  Branch 
not  be  statutorily  limited  or  required  to  publish  lists  of  end  users 
to  whom  exports  of  technologies  and  commodities  are  controlled. 
The  third  goal  is  to  ensure  that  the  Grovernment  maintains  export 
control  sufficient  to  ensure  that  exports  of  critical  technologies  are 
compatible  with  U.S.  interests. 

The  Administration's  proposals  achieve  the  first  goal  by  explicitly 
permitting  the  President  to  delay  the  imposition  of  sanctions  where 
it  is  necessary  to  protect  intelligence  sources  and  methods.  Let  me 
emphasize  that  the  intelligence  community  views  this  as  an  excep- 
tional remedy  that  would  have  limited  but  critical  application,  and 
is  necessary  for  further  nonproliferation  goals  in  the  long  run. 

The  second  goal  is  met  by  not  requiring  the  intelligence  commu- 
nity to  create  lists  or  databases  of  end  users  to  which  exports  of 
goods  or  technologies  are  controlled,  but  still  ensuring  that  intel- 
ligence is  appropriately  made  available  to  other  agencies  for  the 
purpose  of  analyzing  export  license  applications. 

Finally,  the  Administration's  bill  would  not  relax  or  eliminate 
controls  on  key  technologies,  particularly  encryption  devices,  which 
could  be  damaging  to  U.S.  intelligence  interests. 

This  is  the  basic  outline  of  the  issues  we  face.  I  would  offer  my 
center,  the  Nonproliferation  Center,  any  assistance  to  you  if  they 
are  helpful  in  your  deliberations  on  these  important  issues. 

Thank  you. 

The  Chairman.  Thank  you  very  much. 

I  want  to  say,  as  we  have  gone  back  and  forth  here,  I  trust  it 
has  been  constructive.  I  have  meant  for  it  to  be,  and  I  appreciate 
the  professionalism  and  the  work. 

I  want  to  say  to  you  and  through  you  to  the  CIA  that  I  appre- 
ciate the  detail  in  this  testimony  today.  You  have  declassified  a  lot 
of  information  today  at  our  request,  and  made  it  a  matter  of  public 
record.  It  is  very  helpful  to  us  to  do  that,  in  terms  of  both  recon- 
structing what  happened  and  laying  the  right  predicate  for  getting 
the  Export  Control  Act  reauthorization  through  here. 

Your  recommendation  on  this  one  item  that  you  mentioned  at  the 
end  was  not  lost  on  me  in  terms  of  what  we  may  be  able  to  do  be- 
tween now  and  the  time  we  act  on  it  in  the  Senate  as  a  whole. 

We  have  just,  as  you  know,  reported  that  bill  out  of  the  Commit- 
tee by  unanimous  vote  of  19  to  0.  We  have  achieved  a  good  strong 
bipartisan  consensus,  a  regime  that  we  think  deals  with  some  of 
these  problems.  So  I  appreciate  the  fact  that  you  have  validated 
these  concerns  and  given  us  very  important  historical  reconstruc- 
tion here  today  that  is  useful. 

I  will  say  at  the  same  time  that  I  think  that  there  is  this  prob- 
lem of  where  is  the  health  difficulty  coming  from  and  how  do  we 
track  it  to  its  source  so  we  have  got  a  better  way  of  knowing  how 
to  treat  the  veterans  and  try  to  heal  them  and  protect  their  fami- 
lies— that  I  still  see  in  the  various  Executive  Branch  participants, 
a  problem  where  information  leaves  off  at  1  point,  and  then  it  picks 
up  at  the  next  point.  Things  do  not  ever  quite  fully  tie  together. 


85 

I  do  not  just  put  that  on  you  when  I  say  that.  I  am  just  saying 
I  see  that  problem.  It  is  not  the  first  time  I  have  seen  it.  I  have 
seen  it  other  times  in  my  28  years  here  on  other  problems  and  I 
am  seeing  it  again  here  on  this  problem. 

I  would  give  you  this  message  to  take  back  if  you  would.  That 
we  have  got  to  do  some  more  work  to  find  out  why  these  veterans 
are  sick.  If  we  had  half  of  the  top  tier  of  the  CIA  professionals  sick 
today  themselves  from  the  same  problem,  we  would  have  a  much 
more  ambitious  effort  underway  to  get  to  the  answer,  just  as  we 
would  if  we  had  the  high  command  of  the  military  sick  today  from 
these  problems.  It  is  just  the  nature  of  what  gets  the  priority  and 
what  does  not. 

We  have  got  to  find  out  what  happened  here.  We  have  got  to  find 
out  because  we  have  got  a  lot  of  sick  veterans,  many  of  whom  are 
getting  sicker,  and  their  family  members  are  getting  sick  in  in- 
creasing numbers.  We  were  not  prepared  for  that  finding.  That 
finding  presented  itself  to  us  as  we  were  tracking  back  through  this 
problem. 

I  have  talked  to  enough  wives  of  returning  male  Gulf  War  veter- 
ans, who  are  now  quite  sick,  that  I  am  deeply  concerned  about 
what  is  going  on  here.  Something  happened  out  there,  or  some 
combination  of  things  happened.  The  degree  to  which  it  comes  out 
of  this  military  or  biological  weapons  capability,  hopefully  time  will 
give  us  all  those  answers  if  we  are  aggressive  about  pursuing  it. 

What  is  beyond  dispute  is  the  fact  that  we  have  got  a  lot  of  sick 
people  who  put  on  the  uniform  of  this  country,  and  on  the  basis  of 
our  best  intelligence  assessments  and  the  belief  that  somebody  in 
the  command  position  was  making  wise  decisions  with  their  safety 
and  well-being  in  mind,  that  they  could  go  into  a  battle  situation 
with  the  confidence  that  they  were  not  going  to  be  subjected  to 
something  that  we  did  not  anticipate,  were  not  protecting  them 
adequately  against,  or  were  not  prepared  to  get  to  the  bottom  of 
if  they  came  back  with  a  health  problem. 

Many  of  them  are  deeply  discouraged  right  now,  because  they 
really  feel  like  the  Government  has  walked  away  from  them,  and 
despite  all  the  talk,  which  is  cheap  and  by  itself  does  not  mean 
anything,  that  not  enough  has  been  done  to  really  ratchet  their 
problems  up  on  the  priority  scale  and  get  at  them. 

I  agree  with  them.  I  think  they  are  exactly  right.  I  think  it  is 
shameful,  the  fact  that  we  are  in  that  situation.  There  is  no  excuse 
for  it.  I  think  every  operational  officer  in  the  area  of  the  Govern- 
ment that  relates  to  these  things,  from  the  Director  of  the  CIA  to 
the  Secretary  of  Defense,  to  the  head  of  the  DIA,  to  the  President 
himself,  to  the  head  of  the  Veterans'  Administration  have  an  ur- 
gent task  here  to  marshal  the  resources,  marshal  the  knowledge, 
the  professional  focused  effort,  and  figure  out  what  happened  here, 
and  to  try  to  get  as  much  medical  help  to  these  veterans  and  their 
families  as  we  can  do,  and  not  hold  anything  back. 

And  by  the  same  token,  learn  from  that  before  we  suddenly  find 
we  have  got  a  situation  where  the  same  thing  happens  again  in 
some  other  theater  of  war.  We  have  a  terrible  problem  in  this  coun- 
try— and  I  have  seen  it  before — where,  once  somebody  leaves  active 
military  service  and  becomes  a  veteran,  they  are  in  a  different  im- 
portance status  as  it  relates  to  the  Defense  Department. 


86 

The  Defense  Department  is  looking  ahead  to  the  next  war.  The 
Veterans'  Affairs  Department  is  looking  back  at  the  veterans  of  the 
past  wars,  in  effect.  There  is  this  dividing  line. 

Some  of  that  may  be  necessary,  but  I  think  in  this  situation,  the 
precautions  taken  were  not  adequate.  I  think  there  were  some  seri- 
ous strategic  errors  made  in  putting  people  in  harm's  way.  I  think 
people  are  having  a  very  hard  time  now  who  may  have  been  part 
of  that  decision  structure,  facing  it,  acknowledging  it,  and  dealing 
with  it. 

The  body  of  information  that  we  have,  the  number  of  veterans 
who  keep  coming  forward,  many  still  on  active  duty,  manv  holding 
officer  rank,  who  give  us  more  and  more  information,  tell  me  that 
we  have  got  a  problem  here  that  the  rest  of  the  Government  at  the 
top  is  still  reluctant,  or  unable,  to  fully  see  and  deal  with.  That  has 
got  to  change. 

You  have  helped  us  today  with  respect  to  the  report  that  you 
have  given  us  from  the  CIA.  We  will  give  you  some  questions  for 
the  record  and  we  will  look  forward  to  having  you  respond  to  those 
fully. 

Thank  you. 

Dr.  Oehler.  Thank  you,  Mr.  Chairman. 

The  Chairman.  The  Committee  stands  in  recess. 

[Whereupon,  at  4:32  p.m.,  the  hearing  was  adjourned,  subject  to 
the  call  of  the  Chair.] 

[Prepared  statements,  response  to  written  questions,  and  addi- 
tional material  supplied  for  the  record  follow:] 


87 

PREPARED  STATEMENT  OF  SENATOR  ALFONSE  M.  D'AMATO 

Mr.  Chairman,  let  me  begin  today  by  expressing  my  gratitude  and  appreciation 
for  your  commitment  to  addressing  the  serious  issue  before  us — that  of  whether  ex- 
posure to  chemical  and  biological  agents  during  the  Gulf  War  with  Iraq  are  causes 
of  what  has  come  to  be  known  as  the  Gulf  War  Syndrome. 

Saddam  Hussein  has  once  again  been  talking  about  Kuwait  "as  the  19th  province 
of  Iraq."  Thus,  this  hearing  and  our  inquiries  are  not  limited  to  just  a  historical 
focus  and  it  is  not  limited  to  only  the  ailments  of  veterans  of  the  Gulf  War  and  their 
families.  Pursuing  necessary  questions  and  getting  good  answers  may  prove  vital  to 
the  safety  and  success  of  future  U.S.  military  operations. 

Today,  thousands  of  Gulf  War  veterans  across  this  country  are  experiencing  ill- 
nesses that  began  after  they  returned  from  the  Gulf  War.  Alarmingly,  there  appears 
to  be  growing  evidence  that  the  illness  is  spreading  to  the  spouses  and  chiloren  of 
the  affected  veterans. 

I  believe,  as  you  do,  that  it  is  the  responsibility  of  all  Government  agencies,  insti- 
tutions, and  the  U.S.  Congress  to  follow  every  available  lead  which  might  assist 
medical  researchers  in  finding  the  answers  to  the  causes  of  illnesses  faced  by  our 
veterans. 

Mr.  Chairman,  I  know  that  you  have  been  tireless  in  your  efforts  to  get  the  De- 
partment of  Defense  and  other  Federal  Government  agencies  to  be  forthcoming  on 
this  issue.  Most,  if  not  all,  of  the  responses  have  been  inadequate  and  sometimes 
even  contradictory. 

It  is  my  understanding  that  the  Department  of  Defense  contends  that  it  has  no 
evidence  that  U.S.  forces  were  exposed  to  chemical  and  biological  agents  while  serv- 
ing in  the  Persian  Gulf.  But,  according  to  the  Pentagon's  official  report  to  Congress 
on  the  Conduct  of  the  Persian  Gulf  War,  written  in  1992:  "By  the  time  of  the  inva- 
sion of  Kuwait,  Iraq  had  developed  biological  weapons.  Its  advanced  and  aggressive 
biological  warfare  program  was  the  most  advanced  in  the  Arab  world.  Large  scale 
production  of  these  agents  began  in  1989  in  four  facilities  near  Baghdad.  Delivery 
means  for  biological  agents  ranged  from  simple  aerial  bombs  and  artillery  rockets 
to  surface  to  surface  missiles." 

With  this  report  in  hand,  an  acknowledgement  that  Saddam  Hussein  had  the 
means  to  use  such  weapons,  it  is  inconceivable  that  the  Defense  Department  has 
no  other  information  on  the  actual  use  or  impact  of  such  weapons  on  our  veterans. 
Such  information  could  prove  vital  to  assisting  medical  research  efforts  necessary 
to  define  and  treat  Gulf  War  illnesses.  The  work  of  the  Chairman  alone  on  this 
issue,  as  indicated  in  the  report  released  today,  shows  a  growing  link  between  the 
symptoms  of  the  syndrome  and  the  exposure  of  Gulf  War  veterans  to  chemical  and 
biological  warfare  agents,  pre-treatment  drugs  and  other  hazardous  materials  and 
substances. 

It  is  outrageous  and  unjustifiable  that  this  Nation's  own  Defense  Department  not 
cooperate.  I  believe  it  is  their  duty  and  responsibility  to  provide  information  that 
could  help  treat  the  illnesses  being  sufTered  by  the  very  individuals  who  served  their 
country  bravely.  These  individuals  survived  the  horrors  of  the  battlefield  only  to  re- 
turn home  and  face  the  horrors  of  war  on  another  front. 

There  is  a  critical  need  for  immediate  advanced  medical  research.  A  thorou^  and 
systematic  review  of  all  information  and  data  from  all  sources,  including  our  own 
Defense  Department,  could  be  critical  to  identifying  the  causes  and  treating  the  ill- 
nesses. I  hope  that  the  representatives  of  the  Department  here  today  are  going  to 
provide  us  with  worthy  information  and  not  just  more  stonewalling. 

Mr.  Chairman,  thank  you  again  for  your  complete  commitment  to  this  critical 
issue.  I  join  you  in  continuing  the  fight  against  what  is  probably  considered  the  sec- 
ond war  by  many  of  our  veterans. 


88 


CHRISTOPHER  S.  BONO 
MISSOURI 
COMMrmu; 

APPBOPSUTIONS 

■ANKING.  HOUSING  ANO 

UPBAM  AHAJRS 

SMAU.  BUSINESS 

Buocrr 


Bnitd  <^tatt8  Senate 

WASHINGTON,  DC  20610-2603 


May  25,  1994 


Hearing  on  the  Impact  on  the  Health  of  Gulf  War  Veterans 
Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Urban  Affairs 
SD  106  Dirksen 


Opening  remarks: 

Mr.  Chairman,  I  thank  you  for  calling  this  important  hearin 
to  investigate  further  the  causes  of  the  Persian  Gulf  War 
Syndrome  from  which  so  many  U.S.  veterans  and  their  families  are 
currently  suffering.   We  owe  it  to  our  veterans  to  do  everything 
we  can  to  determine  the  causes  of  the  Gulf  War  Syndrome,  to 
develop  and  research  cures  for  those  veterans  now  affected,  and 
to  do  whatever  we  can  to  prepare  and  protect  our  service 
personnel  from  illnesses  associated  with  this  syndrome  in  any 
future  conflicts. 

Thousands  of  American  servicemen  and  women  are  reportedly 
suffering  from  symptoms  and  undiagnosable  disorders  consistent 
with  exposure  to  biological  or  chemical  toxins.   Allied  bombings 
of  Iraqi  nuclear,  chemical,  and  biological  facilities  were 
reported  to  trigger  daily  chemical  "false  alarms"  on  the  front 
lines.   Reports  were  made  by  U.S.  service  personnel  of  direct 
biological  or  chemical  weapons  attack  on  the  17th  and  20th  of 
January,  1991  and  that  as  many  as  five  gas  attack  alerts  in  one 
day  were  issued.   Iraq  not  only  had  a  vast  biological  weapons 
capability,  including  artillery  shells  loaded  with  mustard  gas, 
rockets  loaded  with  nerve  agent,  nerve  agent  aerial  bombs,  and 
SCUD  warheads  loaded  with  Sarin,  but  Iraqi  official  radio 
addresses  on  the  17th  and  20th  of  January,  1991,  indicated  that 
Iraqi  forces  had  and  would  use  all  means  at  their  disposal  to 
fight  the  U.S.  and  that  they  would  soon  unleash  a  secret  weapon 
that  would  release  "an  unusual  force."   Lastly,  the  report  of  a 
Czech  chemical  decontamination  unit  detected  the  chemical  nerve 
agent  Sarin  in  the  air  during  the  opening  days  of  the  war  and 
some  of  its  members  are  believed  to  be  suffering  illnesses 
similar  to  those  of  our  veterans. 

Collectively,  these  facts  make  it,  at  least,  possible  that 
Gulf  War  Veterans  were  e.xposed  to  chemical  and/or  biological 
toxins.   I,  therefore,  fully  support  Public  Law  103-210  which 
provides  additional  authority  for  the  Secretary  of  Veterans 


89 

Affairs  to  provide  priority  health  care  to  veterans  of  the 
Persian  Gulf  War  who  may  have  been  exposed  to  toxic  substances  "or 
environmental  hazards  during  the  Gulf  War.   However,  in  light  of 
the  above  evidence,  it  is  apparent  that  we  must  investigate  fully 
whether  or  not  biological  or  chemical  weapons  were  used  on  our 
troops. 

In  the  staff  report  to  this  committee  on  September  9,  1993 
on  the  Gulf  War  Syndrome,  it  is  stated  that  only  the  use  of 
highly  sophisticated,  computer-enhanced  electroencephalograms 
(EEGs)  would  be  able  to  detect  neurological  disorders  resulting 
from  direct  chemical  or  biological  warfare,  or  chronic  exposure 
to  low  levels  of  hazardous  nerve  agents.   I  believe  it  is 
imperative  that  we  make  such  technology  available  to  those 
veterans  suffering  from  the  Gulf  War  Syndrome  to  determine 
without  a  doubt  whether  biological  and  chemical  toxins  played  a 
role  in  the  health  conditions  of  our  veterans. 

The  top  priority  of  this  committee,  I  believe,  must  be  to 
ensure  that  the  veterans  who,  have  been  affected  are  treated,  not 
just  adequately  or  minimally,  but  to  the  highest  extent  possible, 
and  to  support  research  for  cures  of  the  Gulf  War  Syndrome. 

I  do,  however,  have  several  other  concerns  that  I  feel  must 
be  addressed.   First  of  all,  I  find  it  very  disturbing  that  the 
Department  of  Defense  has  not  been  as  forthcoming  en  this  issue 
as  I  feel  they  must.   It  has  been  almost  two  and  a  half  years 
since  the  Gulf  War,  and  the  Department  of  Defense  has  still  not 
made  it  a  priority  to  get  to  the  bottom  of  the  causes  of  the  Gulf 
War  Syndrome.   While  the  Gulf  War  Syndrome  may  not  be  the  result 
of  chemical  or  biological  warfare,  the  odds  of  this  syndrome 
affecting  future  units  in  combat  is  grave  enough  to  warrant  full 
and  speedy  investigation. 

Second,  by  not  investigating  the  effects  that  possible 
biological  attacks  have  had  on  our  troops,  the  security  of  U.S. 
forces  against  such  future  attacks  would  be  compromised.   Data 
suggests  that  the  M8A1  chemical  agent  detection  alarm  deployed 
during  the  war  might  not  have  been  sensitive  enough  to  detect 
consistent  low  levels  of  chemical  agents.   It  would  appear  that  a 
reevaluation  of  our  defenses  against  biological  and  chemical 
warfare  would  be  in  order,  especially  as  relations  with  North 
Korea  continue  to  sour. 

Lastly,  I  am  concerned  about  the  adverse  side  effects  that 
veterans  have  suffered  from  the  administration  of  nerve  agent 
pre-treatment  drugs  and  inoculations  distributed  to  our  armed 
forces.   Patricia  Axelrod,  a  research  specialist  whose  study  of 
the  drug  pyridostigmine,  which  our  troops  were  ordered  to  take 
prior  to  the  commencement  of  the  ground  war,  stated  that  the  drug 
was  "unproven."   I  think  more  research  on  the  side  effects  of 
this  drug  and  the  advisability  of  administering  it  to  our  troops 
in  the  future  is  warranted. 

I  thank  the  Chairman  for  this  opportunity  to  address  my 
concerns  and  look  forward  to  reviewing  the  testimony  of 
witnesses. 


90 

PREPARED  STATEMENT  OF  SENATOR  CAROL  MOSELEY-BRAUN 

I  ampleased  to  submit  this  testimony  for  the  record  regarding  those  who  have 
been  afTiicted  with  the  Persian  Gulf  War  Syndrome.  While  stories  of  mysterious  ail- 
ments connected  to  service  in  the  Persian  Gulf  have  been  around  for  the  last  several 
years  it  is  only  recently  that  the  symptoms  plaguing  some  of  our  Gulf  War  veterans 
and  their  families  have  been  taken  seriously. 

Those  who  were  forced  to  fight  another  battle  with  their  health  upon  their  return 
from  the  Gulf  have  been  vindicated  by  an  NIH  technical  panel  held  in  April,  that 
validated  the  service  related  claims  of  many  of  the  victims.  The  panel  found  that 
the  Desert  Storm  environment — biological,  chemical,  physical,  and  psychological — 
produced  a  range  of  illnesses  for  Desert  Storm  vets. 

Today  I  met  with  a  twenty-four  year  old  Illinois  constituent  who  came  to  my  office 
with  his  stoiy.  I  would  like  to  share  it  with  you,  because  it  is  representative  of  the 
experience  of  many  of  our  Gulf  veterans.  My  constituent,  Tim  Striley,  left  the  Per- 
sian Gulf  even  before  the  war  began  due  to  unexplained  symptoms  including  a  rash, 
nausea,  and  fevers.  Upon  his  return  he  completed  his  service  commitment  and 
began  a  private  sector  job.  As  his  symptoms  continued  and  worsened  he  received 
care  from  his  local  VA  hospital.  As  is  the  custom  of  the  VA,  his  bills  were  forwarded 
to  his  private  insurer  for  payment.  With  no  diagnosis,  no  treatments,  and  no  cure, 
his  medical  bills  soared  and  he  missed  time  from  work.  He  lost  his  job  and  was  told 
by  his  insurer  that  they  did  not  insure  Gulf  War  vets. 

To  add  to  Tim's  problems,  not  only  is  he  the  victim  of  this  amorphous  syndrome, 
but  as  we  are  hearing  more  often,  his  wife  and  young  daughter  appear  to  also  be 
affected. 

His  illness  has  advanced  to  the  point  that  he  is  now  disabled  and  unable  to  work. 
Though  he  continues  to  receive  care  through  the  VA,  he  has  been  unable  to  access 
Social  Security  Disability  Income  because  there  is  no  diagnosis  for  his  illness.  His 
wife's  employment  provides  the  sole  income  for  the  family. 

My  understanding  is  that  the  story  of  Tim's  family  is  far  from  uncommon.  It  is 
very  clear  that  we  must  do  more  to  aid  those  who  fought  in  the  Gulf  War  and  are 
experiencing  severe  health  problems  because  of  it. 

I  support  the  NIH's  recommendations  to  study  the  issue  further,  conduct  a  survey 
of  Gulf  War  veterans,  and  to  create  a  uniform  protocol  for  evaluating  Gulf  War  vet- 
erans in  different  treatment  settings.  In  the  meantime,  however,  we  must  assure 
that  veterans  suffering  from  Gulf  related  illnesses  receive  proper  treatment  and 
care  not  only  for  themselves  but  for  their  families. 

It  is  important  that  we  move  forward  to  determine  a  cause  for  this  illness  because 
it  is  real  and  very  much  a  public  health  problem.  We  are  now  hearing  about  mys- 
terious bacterias  and  high  incidence  of  cancer  among  Gulf  War  vets  in  their 
twenties. 

These  claims  and  other  claims  that  families  of  vets  are  also  somehow  experiencing 
related  health  problems  must  be  thoroughly  examined  as  expeditiously  as  possible. 
We  must  ensure  that  these  families  receive  adequate  care  and  we  must  ensure  that 
we  take  additional  measures  to  protect  the  public  health. 

I  plan  to  contact  the  Secretary  of  Health  and  Human  Services  to  determine  if 
there  is  a  role  for  the  Centers  for  Disease  Control  and  Prevention  regarding  inves- 
tigation of  the  syndrome  or  measures  to  protect  the  public  health.  I  also  plan  to 
work  with  Senator  Riegle  to  continue  to  bring  attention  to  the  plight  of  our  vets  who 
served  their  country  heroically  in  the  Gulf. 


PREPARED  STATEMENT  OF  SENATOR  BEN  NIGHTHORSE  CAMPBELL 

Mr.  Chairman,  I  appreciate  your  work  and  your  persistence  in  trying  to  answer 
questions  about  the  Persian  Gulf  Syndrome. 

Like  most  people,  I  don't  have  the  answers  about  why  so  many  veterans  of  the 
Gulf  War  face  chronic  and  often  disabling  illnesses,  many  of  them  from  my  home 
State  of  Colorado. 

My  office  has  helped  many  Persian  Gulf  War  veterans,  but  I  want  to  tell  you 
about  one  young  man  whose  family  lives  close  to  my  ranch  in  Colorado.  I  remember 
him  as  a  strapping  young  high  school  student.  He  also  served  honorably  in  the  Gulf 
War. 

Since  returning  from  the  Gulf,  he  has  lost  40  pounds,  he  has  trouble  remembering 
things,  and  he  has  to  fight  bouts  of  dizziness  and  depression.  The  situation  got  so 
bad  that  he  couldn't  even  make  line-up.  Yet  the  doctors  at  his  base  couldn't  find 
anything  wrong  with  him.  He  needed  medical  treatment,  but  they  told  him  that  his 


91 

problem  was  mental,  and  refused  to  treat  him.  When  will  the  United  States  Grovern- 
ment  believe  them?  At  the  funeral? 

Only  after  I  called  the  commander  of  Ft.  Carson  Armv  Base  was  he  admitted  to 
Walter  Reed  Army  Medical  Center  for  treatment.  It  shouldn't  take  a  phone  call  from 
a  Senator  to  help  a  veteran  in  need. 

Currently,  the  Federal  Ckjvemment  is  engaged  in  at  least  20  Persian  Gulf  related 
studies.  They  are  investigating  every  possible  cause  or  causes:  multiple  chemical  ex- 
posures, leishmaniasis,  oil  well  fires,  microwave  exposures,  chemical  and  biological 
agents,  vaccines  and  medications,  and  depleted  uranium. 

Last  month  the  National  Institutes  oi  Health  (NEH),  along  with  the  DoD,  VA, 
HHS,  and  EPA,  held  the  "NLH  Technology  Assessment  Workshop  on  the  Persian 
Gulf  Experience  and  Health."  After  2  days  of  presentations,  the  NIH  adopted  a  writ- 
ten report  which  determined,  among  other  things,  that: 

•  There  is  "no  single  disease  or  syndrome  apparent,  but  rather  multiple  illnesses 
with  overlapping  symptoms  and  causes." 

•  A  "collaborative   Government  sponsored  program  has  not  been  established"  to 
evaluate  undiagnosed  illnesses. 

Of  course,  we  don't  need  to  wait  for  studies  to  know  that  these  veterans  are  sick. 
The  question  shouldn't  be:  "Are  these  veterans  sick?"  It  should  be:  "How  can  we 
take  care  of  these  veterans  ouickly  and  equitably?" 

Last  year  Congress  passed  authority  for  the  VA  to  provide  health  care  for  all  Per- 
sian Gulf  veterans  on  a  priority  basis.  I  thought  this  would  mean  veterans  would 
be  taken  care  of,  but  today  we  find  out  that  care  is  meted  out  stingily,  with  sus- 
picion and  reservation. 

Without  question,  eligibility  for  benefits,  access  to  health  care  and  compensation 
have  to  be  provided  sooner,  with  less  red  tape.  I  will  be  working  with  Veterans'  Af- 
fairs Committee  Chairmen  Rockefeller  and  Montgomery  to  provide  a  presumption 
of  service-connection  for  sick  Persian  Gulf  War  veterans. 

I  hope  that  after  these  hearings,  nobody  argues  with  the  need  to  carefully  control 
potentially  dangerous  exports.  Frankly,  I  m  a  little  tired  of  hearing  U.S.  companies 
complain  about  export  controls  in  the  name  of  profits,  and  then  not  wanting  to  take 
responsibility  for  the  uses  of  these  products. 

This  weekend,  50-75,000  veterans  will  visit  the  Wall — I  would  like  to  tell  them 
that  we  are  doing  something,  and  that  the  U.S.  is  not  dragging  its  feet. 

As  a  Member  of  both  this  Committee  and  the  Senate  Veterans'  Affairs  Committee, 
I  look  forward  to  working  with  you  and  Chairman  Rockefeller  on  these  issues. 


PREPARED  STATEMENT  OF  HONORABLE  EDWIN  DORN 

Under  Secretary  of  Defense  for  Personnel  and  Readiness 

U.S.  Department  of  Defensk 

Mr.  Chairman  and  Members  of  the  Committee,  I  am  pleased  to  provide  informa- 
tion to  support  the  Committee's  review  of  how  materials  contributing  to  Iraq's  chem- 
ical and  biological  warfare  program  were  exported  to  Iraq  from  the  United  States. 
These  are  significant  issues  as  you  consider  measures  to  strengthen  the  Export  Ad- 
ministration Act. 

Secretary  Perry  has  asked  me  to  be  the  focal  point  within  DoD  for  issues  related 
to  service  in  the  Persian  Gulf  during  Operation  Desert  Shield  and  Desert  Storm. 
I  am  here  today  in  that  capacity. 

Senator,  I  know  that  you  and  your  colleagues  are  very  concerned  about  Persian 
Gulf  veterans  who  have  developed  health  problems.  So  are  we  in  the  Department 
of  Defense.  In  recent  weeks  we  nave  testified  before  the  Armed  Services  Committees 
and  the  Veterans'  Affairs  Committees  in  both  Houses,  and  I  will  be  pleased  to  share 
with  you  the  same  information  we  have  shared  with  them.  Indeed,  before  we  move 
on  to  discuss  matters  related  to  the  Export  Administration  Act,  I  would  like  to  offer 
a  few  points  about  our  efforts  on  behalf  of  Persian  Gulf  veterans. 

We  take  the  position  that  the  veterans  who  say  they  are  sick  should  receive  the 
best  care  we  can  provide.  Three  years  ago,  we  trusted  these  men  and  women  to 
make  life-and-death  decisions  in  the  heat  of  battle.  Today,  we  should  believe  them 
if  they're  sick.  We  are  committed  to  treating  the  symptoms,  to  fashioning  appro- 
priate compensation  for  those  who  are  disabled,  and  to  identifying  the  causes  of 
their  illnesses.  An  interagency  coordinating  board  ensures  that  the  Defense  Depart- 
ment's treatment  and  research  programs  complement  related  efforts  by  the  Depart- 
ment of  Veterans'  Affairs  and  the  Department  of  Health  and  Human  Services.  I 
should  note  here  that  Congress  aided  our  ability  to  respond  by  authorizing  VA  to 


92 

provide  priority  care  to  Persian  Gulf  veterans  for  conditions  that  might  possibly  be 
related  to  their  Gulf  service. 

We  are  especially  concerned  about  those  Desert  Shield/Desert  Storm  veterans 
who,  since  the  war,  have  developed  symptoms  whose  causes  we  cannot  identify. 
These  veterans  represent  a  small  proportion  of  the  nearly  700,000  U.S.  military  per- 
sonnel who  served  in  the  Persian  Gulf  region  during  the  conflict,  and  indeed  ttiey 
represent  a  small  proportion  of  those  who  have  been  treated  for  illnesses  or  injuries 
suiTered  during  the  war.  DoD  and  VA  doctors  have  treated  thousands  of  Persian 
Gulf  veterans  for  readily  identifiable  illnesses  and  injuries;  but  we  know  of  about 
2,000  people  for  whom  a  clear  diagnosis  continues  to  elude  physicians. 

We  are  working  very  hard  on  this.  There  are  lots  of  theories  about  causes.  We 
have  heard  from  people  who  are  convinced  that  we  will  find  the  answer  if  we  focus 
solely  on  parasitic  diseases,  or  Kuwaiti  oil  fire  smoke,  or  industrial  pollutants,  or 
the  effects  of  inoculations,  or  stress,  or  multiple  chemical  sensitivity.  We  are  trying 
to  maintain  a  program  that  explores  all  the  possibilities.  In  the  course  of  our  work, 
some  possibilities  nave  begun  to  appear  less  plausible  than  others. 

One  theory  involves  Iraq's  chemical  and  biological  warfare  capability.  That  theory 
provides  a  connection  between  the  health  problems  of  Gulf  War  veterans  and  the 
Senate  Banking  Committee's  review  of  the  Export  Administration  Act. 

At  the  time  of  its  invasion  of  Kuwait  in  August  of  1990,  Iraq  clearly  represented 
a  case  in  which  past  efforts  to  prevent  the  proliferation  of  weapons  of  mass  destruc- 
tion had  not  been  effective.  Many  American  policymakers  and  military  commanders 
were  greatly  concerned,  going  into  the  war,  that  Iraq  would  use  chemical  and/or  bio- 
logical weapons.  We  knew  they  had  used  chemical  weapons  in  the  past  and  we  had 
evidence  that  they  had  acquired  a  biological  warfare  capability  as  well. 

Our  concerns  led  us  to  take  measures  to  protect  our  personnel  against  such  weap- 
ons, through  immunizations,  special  training,  equipment,  and  detection.  The  tension 
surrounding  the  possible  use  of  chemical  or  oiological  weapons  was  evident  to  every 
American  who  watched  on  television  as  journalists  scrambled  to  put  on  protective 
masks  in  response  to  the  SCUD-attack  warning  sirens  in  downtown  Riyadh  and 
other  areas.  There  were  many  alarms,  witnessed  by  U.S.  and  other  coalition  mili- 
tary personnel  and  by  the  civilian  populations  of  Saudi  Arabia,  Kuwait,  and  Israel. 

Following  the  war,  we  confirmed  through  the  inspections  conducted  by  the  United 
Nations  Special  Commission  that  Iraa  did  have  significant  stocks  of  chemical  agents 
and  the  weapons  systems  to  deliver  tnem,  as  well  as  equipment  and  materials  suit- 
ed for  chemical  agent  production.  All  of  these  chemical  agents  and  related  equip- 
ment were  found  stored  at  locations  a  great  distance  from  the  Kuwait  Theater  of 
Operations.  These  materials  have  been  undergoing  destruction  at  a  centralized  loca- 
tion in  Iraq  under  the  supervision  of  the  United  Nations  Special  Commission  since 
late  1992.  U.S.  military  personnel  have  been  present,  on  site  in  Iraq,  and  involved 
in  each  of  the  teams  overseeing  these  destruction  operations. 

We  have  concluded  that  Iraq  did  not  use  chemical  or  biological  weapons  during 
the  war.  This  conclusion  is  based  on  analysis  of  large  amounts  of  detailed  data  gath- 
ered in  the  theater  and  reviewed  after  the  war.  First,  throughout  the  operation, 
there  was  only  one  instance  of  a  soldier  who  was  treated  for  chemical  bums  that 
were  initially  attributed  to  mustard  agent;  but  subsequent  tests  on  the  soldier  and 
his  clothing  did  not  definitively  support  the  initial  finding.  We  know  of  no  other  re- 
ports of  any  U.S.  military,  coalition  military,  or  civilians  in  the  region  having  symp- 
toms caused  by  exposure  to  chemical  or  oiological  warfare  agents.  The  effects  of 
chemical  and  biological  weapons  are  acute  and  readily  identifiable,  and  our  person- 
nel had  been  trained  to  look  for  the  symptoms. 

Second,  our  detectors  were  strategically  located,  and  although  many  detectors 
alarmed,  there  were  no  confirmed  detections  of  any  chemical  or  biological  agents  at 
any  time  during  the  entire  conflict.  Third,  no  chemical  or  biological  weapons  were 
found  in  the  Kuwait  Theater  of  Operations — those  portions  of  Southern  Iraq  and 
Kuwait  that  constituted  the  battlefield — among  the  tons  of  live  and  spent  munitions 
recovered  following  the  war.  The  international  community  agrees  witn  these  conclu- 
sions. 

This  is  a  complicated  and  contentious  issue,  however.  To  ensure  that  we  have  not 
overlooked  or  misinterpreted  important  information,  we  have  asked  an  independent 
panel  of  experts,  chaired  by  Nobel  Laureate  Joshua  Lederberg,  to  review  all  the 
available  evidence.  We  expect  to  receive  the  panel's  report  in  June.  We  also  remain 
eager  to  hear  from  Gulf  War  veterans  who  feel  that  they  can  shed  light  on  the 
sources  of  the  undiagnosed  illnesses. 

I  understand  the  fear  and  the  frustration  many  Persian  Gulf  veterans  are  experi- 
encing: They  are  sick  and  their  doctors  can't  offer  definitive  answers.  To  them,  let 
me  say:  This  Administration  is  committed  to  treating  you  fairly.  You  stood  up  for 
the  Nation;  the  Nation  will  now  stand  up  for  you. 


93 

Now,  let  me  turn  to  the  Defense  Department's  role  in  the  export  licensing  process. 
First,  it  should  be  noted  that  DoD  is  not  a  licensing  agency.  That  responsibihty  falls 
on  the  Department  of  Commerce  for  dual-use  items.  Trie  Department  of  Defense  re- 
views and  provides  recommendations  on  export  license  applications  when  they  are 
referred  to  Defense  or  to  interagency  groups  in  which  Defense  participates.  Records 
on  the  ultimate  disposition  of  dual-use,  biological,  chemical,  nuclear,  or  missile  tech- 
nology-related licenses  reside  in  the  Commerce  Department. 

DoD  is  a  member  of  the  interagency  Subgroup  on  Nuclear  Export  Controls  which 
was  in  operation  throughout  the  1980's.  This  group  reviews  export  requests  for  nu- 
clear-related dual-use  technology.  In  the  missile  area,  Defense  played  a  significant 
role  in  the  establishment  of  the  Missile  Technology  Control  Regime  in  1987,  and 
subsequently  helped  set  up  an  interagency  license  review  group  in  1990.  In  the 
chemical  and  biological  area.  Defense  also  plays  an  important  role,  as  part  of  an 
interagency  team,  in  reviewing  export  license  requests  for  items  controlled  by  the 
Australia  Group. 

The  Department  has  taken  and  will  continue  to  take  its  responsibility  here  very 
seriously.  For  example,  DoD  made  an  important  contribution  in  halting  export  of 
the  Argentine  Condor  Program  that  was  aiding  Iraq's  Weapons  of  Mass  IJestruction 
Program  and  we  spearheaded  the  effort  to  prevent  Iraq  from  acquiring  a  more  capa- 
ble missile  than  the  SCUD.  Defense  also  played  a  leading  role  in  developing  the 
President's  Enhanced  Proliferation  Control  Initiative  and  most  recently  the  com- 
prehensive DoD  Counterpro  lifer  at  ion  initiative.  The  Department  of  Defense  contin- 
ues to  consider  proliferation  as  a  significant  military  threat. 

The  growing  ability  to  produce  and  use  chemical  weapons  is  a  great  concern  to 
DoD.  We  fully  support  any  measures  that  will  prevent  or  control  this  proliferation, 
which  include  strengthening  the  Export  Administration  Act.  It  is  important  to  re- 
member that  all  exports  made  to  Iraq  in  the  1980's  were  completely  consistent  with 
the  laws  in  effect  at  the  time,  and  Iraq  was  not  considered  a  hostile  country.  De- 
fense's role  in  reviewing  exports  was  greatly  expanded  in  1991 — and  would  be  fur- 
ther expanded  through  measures  you  are  considering  in  this  Conmiittee. 

I  would  now  like  to  introduce  the  other  members  of  the  panel.  Dr.  Theodore  Prociv 
is  the  Deputy  Assistant  to  the  Secretary  of  Defense  for  Chemical  and  Biological 
Matters.  In  that  role,  he  oversees  the  Department's  Chemical  and  Biological  Defense 
Program;  the  Army  program  to  destroy  the  U.S.  stockpile  of  chemical  weapons;  and 
the  implementation  of  bilateral  and  multilateral  chemical  weapons  treaties,  includ- 
ing the  Chemical  Weapons  Convention  which  is  being  considered  currently  by  the 
Senate  for  ratification.  Additionally,  his  office  has  assisted  the  Defense  Science 
Board  Task  Force  examining  the  issue  of  Gulf  War  health,  and  has  assisted  my  staff 
with  technical  support  in  the  area  of  chemical  and  biological  warfare  defense.  Dr. 
John  T.  Kriese  is  the  Chief  of  the  Office  for  Ground  Forces  at  the  Defense  Intel- 
ligence Agency.  He  is  responsible  for  the  production  of  intelligence  on  foreign  ground 
forces  and  associated  weapons  systems  worldwide;  and  all  aspects  of  foreign  nuclear 
and  chemical  programs.  Dr.  Prociv  and  Dr.  Kriese  are  with  me  here  this  morning. 
Dr.  Mitchell  Wallerstein,  who  will  testify  this  afternoon,  is  an  expert  m 
Counterproliferation  and  Export  Control  for  the  Under  Secretary  of  Defense  for  Pol- 
icy in  International  Security  Policy.  He  is  the  Deputy  Assistant  Secretary  of  Defense 
for  Counterproliferation  Policy. 

Mr.  Chairman,  that  concludes  my  opening  statement.  Before  we  turn  to  questions, 
I  ask  the  Committee's  indulgence  while  Dr.  Prociv  and  Dr.  Kriese  describe  their 
areas  of  expertise. 


PREPARED  STATEMENT  OF  DR.  GORDON  C.  OEHLER 
Director,  Nonproliferation  Center,  Central  Intelligence  Agency 

Mr.  Chairman,  Members  of  the  Committee,  I  am  pleased  to  appear  before  you  this 
afternoon  to  address  your  concerns  about  the  proliferation  of  weapons  of  mass  de- 
struction. I  am  specifically  going  to  address  three  aspects  of  Iraq's  efforts  to  obtain 
critical  technologies  for  its  weapons  programs  in  the  years  preceding  the  Persian 
Gulf  War. 

•  First,  I  wOl  present  a  brief  overview  of  the  Intelligence  Community's  assessments 
of  Iraqi  chemical  and  biological  warfare  (that  is  CW  and  BW)  capabilities  prior 
to  Desert  Storm  and  subsequent  discoveries  based  on  post-war  inspections.  1  will 
also  touch  lightly  on  our  assessments  of  Iraq's  missile  and  nuclear  weapons  pro- 
grams. 

•  Second,  my  remarks  will  detail  the  means  by  which  Iraq  sought  to  procure  items 
for  its  weapons  of  mass  destruction  programs. 


86-558  0-95-4 


94 

•  Third,  I  will  address  the  role  that  U.S.  intelligence  agencies  played  in  support  of 
efforts  to  restrict  transfers  to  Iraq  that  would  have  been  of  use  in  its  CW  and  BW 
programs. 

Finally,  I  will  close  with  some  observations  regarding  the  Export  Administration 
Act.  I  will  be  as  candid  as  possible  in  this  of)en  testimony.  I'm  sure  you  understand 
that  further  details  could  be  addressed  in  closed  session. 

First,  what  did  we  know  about  Iraq's  weapons  of  mass  destruction  programs.  As 
we  reported  extensively,  Iraq  had  aggressive  CW  and  BW  programs  prior  to  Desert 
Storm,  as  well  as  programs  for  ballistic  missile  delivery  systems.  The  Iraqis  used 
nerve  and  blister  agents  during  the  war  with  Iran  and,  in  1988,  increased  their 
usage  of  nerve  agent  dramatically  during  their  final  offensive  campaign.  As  you  wiU 
recall,  they  also  targeted  their  own  Kurdish  population  with  chemical  weapons. 

In  mid-1990,  Iraq's  primary  site  for  the  production  of  chemical  weapons  was  the 
Al  Muthanna  State  Establishment  located  in  Samarra,  about  80  km  northwest  of 
Baghdad.  In  addition  to  that  complex,  the  Iraqis  had  begun  to  build  a  complex  of 
precursor  production  plants  near  Al  Habbaniygih,  as  well  as  additional  chemical 
weapon  storage  sites.  By  early  1990,  we  calculated  that  the  Al  Muthanna  facility 
was  capable  oT  producing  more  than  2,000  tons  annually  of  blister  agents  and  nerve 
agents. 

Although  the  Iraais  claimed  after  the  war  that  their  chemical  weapons  production 
was  inept  and  poorly  organized,  U.N.  inspections  showed  otherwise.  Iraq  originally 
declared  only  about  10,000  CW  munitions  and  less  than  1,000  tons  of  chemical 
agents.  U.N.  inspectors  have  found  and  destroyed  more  than  46,000  filled  munitions 
including  30  warheads  for  ballistic  missiles,  bombs  filled  with  mustard  gas,  and 
nerve  gas  containers.  Additional  munitions  remain  buried  in  bunkers  attacked  and 
damaged  by  coalition  forces — the  U.N.  cannot  remove  them  safely.  The  inspections 
have  also  revealed  5,000  tons  of  stockpiled  chemical  agents.  The  U.N.  is  only  now 
completing  the  task  of  dismantling  this  massive  program. 

With  regard  to  biological  weapons,  we  estimated,  prior  to  the  start  of  the  war, 
that  Iraq  had  a  stockpile  of  at  least  one  metric  ton  of  biological  warfare  agents,  in- 
cluding anthrax  and  botulinum  toxin.  We  reported  that  Salman  Pak  was  the  pri- 
mary biological  weapons  facility.  U.N.  inspectors  did  not  find  any  evidence  of  large- 
scale  production  or  weaponization  during  post-war  inspections,  suggesting  that  the 
materials  and  equipment  were  removed  and  hidden  prior  to  inspections.  Research 
reports  released  by  the  Iraqis  to  the  first  U.N.  biological  weapons  inspection  team 
showed  highly  focused  research  at  Salman  Pak  on  anthrax,  Botulinum  toxin,  and 
Clostridium  perfringens.  The  Iraais  insisted,  however,  that  their  program  did  not 
proceed  beyond  basic  research.  U.N.  inspectors  believed  that,  contrary  to  Iraqi 
claims,  there  was  an  advanced  miUtary  oiological  research  program  which  con- 
centrated on  these  agents. 

The  Department  of  Defense  reports  that  no  chemical  or  biological  warfare  muni- 
tions were  found  stored — or  used — in  areas  occupied  by  Coalition  forces  during 
Desert  Storm.  We  do  not  have  any  intelligence  information  that  would  lead  us  to 
conclude  otherwise. 

At  the  same  time  it  was  developing  CW  and  BW  agents,  Iraq  was  also  developing 
missile  delivery  capabilities.  By  the  time  of  the  invasion  of  Kuwait,  Saddam  could 
field  up  to  450  Scua-tvpe  surface-to-surface  missiles.  These  Soviet-origin  Scuds  origi- 
nally nad  a  range  of  300  kilometers,  but  Iraq  reconfigured  them  into  a  series  of 
other  missiles  with  ranges  up  to  750  kilometers.  Prior  to  the  war,  Saddam  claimed 
to  have  developed  and  tested  a  missile  with  a  range  of  950  kilometers — which  he 
called  the  Al-Aobas — but  discontinued  the  system  because  of  in-flight  stability  prob- 
lems. 

With  regard  to  Iraq's  nuclear  program,  the  bombing  of  the  Osirak  nuclear  re- 
search reactor  by  the  Israelis  in  1981  drove  Saddam  to  extreme  lengths  to  cover, 
diversify,  and  disperse  his  nuclear  activities.  IAEA  inspections  of  declared  nuclear 
materials  continued  on  a  regular  bsisis,  but  the  IAEA  did  not  inspect  any  of  the 
undeclared  facilities  associated  with  the  weapons  program.  We  reported  extensively 
on  the  existence  of  the  nuclear  weapons  program.  Post-war  inspections  added  a 
number  of  details. 

I  would  like  to  give  you  a  sense  of  Iraq's  procurement  efforts  and  patterns.  The 
Iraai  program  was  developed  gradually  over  the  course  of  the  1980's.  By  the  time 
of  the  invasion  of  Kuwait,  it  had  become  deeply  entrenched,  flexible,  and  well-or- 
chestrated. Project  managers  for  the  weapons  of  mass  destruction  programs  went 
directly  to  vetted  European  suppliers  for  the  majority  of  their  needs.  Throughout  the 
1980's,  German  companies  headed  the  list  of  preferred  suppliers  for  machinery, 
technology,  and  chemical  precursors.  German  construction  companies  usually  won 
the  contracts  to  build  the  CW  facilities  in  Iraq.  And  Iraqi  procurement  agents  were 


95 

sophisticated  in  exploiting  inconsistencies  in  local  export  control  laws  by  targeting 
countries  for  substances  and  technologies  that  were  not  locally  controlled. 

In  the  pre-war  years,  the  dual-use  nature  of  many  of  these  facilities  made  it  easi- 
er for  Iraq  to  claim  that  chemical  precursors,  for  example,  were  intended  for  agricul- 
tural industries.  European  firms,  arguing  that  the  facilities  in  Iraq  were  for  the  pro- 
duction of  insecticides,  built  the  Samarra  chemical  plant,  including  six  separate 
chemical  weapons  manufacturing  lines,  between  1983-86. 

European  middlemen  broke  red  chemical  precursor  deals  for  Iraq  under  the  pre- 
text that  the  materials  were  intended  for  pesticide  plants.  A  Dutch  firm  purchased 
supplies  from  major  chemical  firms  around  the  world,  supplying  the  Chemical  Im- 
portation and  Distribution  State  Enterprise  in  Baghdad  in  the  late  1970's,  and  in 
the  1980's  supplying  the  Iraqi  State  Establishment  for  Pesticide  Production — cover 
names  for  the  CW  program.  The  middleman  supplied  dual-use  chemical  precursors 
including  monochlorobenzene,  ethyl  alcohol,  and  thiodiglycol.  When  the  Iraqis  re- 
quested phosphorus  oxychloride — a  nerve  agent  precursor  banned  for  export  under 
Dutch  law  without  explicit  permission — the  supplier  balked  and  drew  this  request 
to  the  attention  of  Dutch  authorities.  Subsequent  Dutch  investigations  found  that 
two  other  Dutch  firms  were  involved  in  brokering  purchases  of  chemical  precursors. 

Iraq  exploited  businessmen  and  consortia  willing  to  violate  the  export  laws  of 
their  own  countries.  As  has  been  indicated  in  press  and  television  reports.  The 
Consen  Group — a  consortium  of  European  missile  engineers  and  businessmen  estab- 
lished a  network  of  front  companies  to  cover  its  role  as  project  director  of  an  Argen- 
tine-Egyptian-Iraqi sponsored  Condor  II  ballistic  missile  program. 

Iraqi  procurement  officers,  knowing  full  well  the  licensing  thresholds,  requested 
items  that  fell  just  under  the  denial  thresholds — but  nonetheless  would  suffice. 
Prior  to  Desert  Storm,  U.S.  regulations  on  the  export  of  these  technologies  were 
drafted  to  meet  U.S.  technical  specifications  and  standards.  Technologies  of  a  lower 
standard  worked  just  as  well,  and  permitted  Iraq  to  obtain  the  goods  and  technology 
consistent  with  Commerce  Department  regulations. 

Let  me  turn  to  the  question  of  the  involvement  of  U.S.  firms  in  Iraq's  proliferation 
programs.  We  were  watching  these  programs  very  careftilly,  and  it  was  clear  that 
the  major  players  assisting  Saddam's  effort  were  not  American  firms — they  were 
principally  European.  We  saw  little  involvement  of  U.S.  firms  in  Iraq's  weapons  of 
mass  destruction  programs. 

In  discussing  this  issue,  we  should  remember  that,  by  law,  the  CIA,  as  a  foreign 
intelligence  agency,  does  not  focus  on  U.S.  persons,  to  include  U.S.  companies.  By 
this  definition,  companies  founded  by  foreign  nationals  and  incorporated  in  the  U.S. 
are  treated  as  U.S.  companies. 

This  is  not  to  say  that  we  did  not  occasionally  come  across  information  on  a  U.S. 
person  that  was  collected  incidentally  to  our  foreign  intelligence  target  overseas — 
we  did.  But,  when  we  did,  and  when  there  was  a  possibility  of  a  violation  of  U.S. 
law,  we  were  obligated  to  turn  our  information  over  to  the  Justice  Department. 

We  provided  what  we  called  "alert  memos"  to  the  Departments  of  Commerce,  Jus- 
tice, Treasury,  and  to  the  FBI.  These  memos  resulted  whenever  this  incidentally- 
collected  information  indicated  that  U.S.  firms  had  been  targeted  by  foreign  govern- 
ments of  concern,  or  were  involved  in  possible  violations  of  U.S.  law.  Between  1984 
and  1990,  CIA's  Office  of  Scientific  and  Weapons  Research  provided  five  memos  cov- 
ering Iraqi  dealings  with  U.S.  firms  on  purchases,  discussions,  or  visits  that  ap- 
peared to  be  related  to  weapons  of  mass  destruction  programs. 

Turning  now  to  export  controls,  the  Intelligence  Conmiunity  was  asked  by  the  De- 
partment of  Commerce  during  the  1980's  to  review  export  license  applications  pri- 
marily when  the  licenses  had  significance  to  Intelligence  Collection  equities.  And 
here  the  concern  was  not  so  much  Iraq,  but  whether  there  was  a  possibility  the 
equipment  would  be  diverted  to  the  Soviet  Union  or  other  Communist  countries. 

Prior  to  1991,  there  were  four  instances  in  which  the  Department  of  Commerce 
sought  information  on  Iraqi  export  license  applications — all  dated  in  1986.  These  ap- 
plications involved  computer  technologies  and  image  processors.  For  some  of  these, 
we  reported  no  derogatory  information  on  the  end  user.  In  one  case,  we  referred 
Commerce  to  a  classified  intelligence  report. 

After  evidence  mounted  in  the  mid-1980's  about  the  use  of  chemical  warfare  in 
the  Iran-Iraq  war,  the  United  States  began  to  put  into  effect  unilateral  controls  on 
exports  of  chemical  precursors  to  Iraq  and  other  countries  suspected  of  having 
chemical  warfare  programs.  The  U.S.  and  several  other  industrialized  nations  joined 
what  is  called  the  Australia  Group  to  establish  more  uniform  licensing  controls  for 
the  export  of  several  chemical  weapons  precursors.  Since  then,  more  nations  have 
been  brought  into  the  Australia  Group,  and  recently,  controls  have  been  added  for 
chemical  equipment,  certain  pathogens,  and  biological  equipment. 


96 

Since  the  Gulf  War,  U.S.  export  controls  on  CW/BW  have  been  considerably 
strengthened.  Enforcement  mechanisms  involving  several  Federal  agencies  have 
been  put  into  place.  The  scope  of  the  regulations  has  also  been  broadened  consider- 
ably. In  1991,  export  controls  were  tightened  to  require  validated  licenses  for  all 
dual-use  equipment  being  exported  to  end  users  of  proliferation  concern.  Intelligence 
information  is  often  the  basis  for  this  determination.  This  catch-all  provision  has 
served  as  a  model  for  other  countries  interested  in  joining  the  U.S.  Government's 
non-proliferation  efforts. 

The  Intelligence  Community  has  an  expanded  role  in  this  strengthened  export 
control  regime.  We  work  with  Department  of  State-led  interagency  forums  to  control 
sensitive  technologies  and  equipment.  Our  analysis  of  international  trade  mecha- 
nisms used  to  transfer  technolo^es  from  suppliers  to  consumers  is  provided  to  the 
U.S.  policy,  enforcement,  and  intelligence  communities.  And  the  Department  of 
Commerce  now  brings  the  Intelligence  Community  into  a  large  percentage  of  its  li- 
cense reviews. 

Let  me  say  a  brief  word  about  the  control  of  missile  and  nuclear  technologies.  The 
Missile  Technology  Control  Regime  (the  MTCR)  went  into  effect  in  April  1987,  with 
the  participation  of  the  U.S.,  the  UK,  Canada,  Italy,  France,  Japan,  and  West  Ger- 
many, the  leading  suppliers  of,  missile-related  technologies.  Initially,  the  MTCR 
controlled  ballistic  missiles  and  their  components  that  are  capable  of  delivering  a 
500-kilogram  warhead  to  a  range  of  300  or  more  kilometers.  In  recent  years,  the 
scope  of  the  MTCR  has  been  expanded  to  include  any  unmanned  system,  with  any 
range  or  payload,  if  it  is  believed  to  be  intended  for  use  with  weapons  of  mass  de- 
struction. 

As  you  know,  the  Nuclear  Nonproliferation  Treaty — most  often  known  by  its  ini- 
tials— NPT — provides  the  global  framework  to  control  the  spread  of  nuclear  weap- 
ons. Nations  that  have  joined  the  NPT  pledge  not  to  transfer,  seek  access  to,  or  as- 
sist the  spread  of  nuclear  weapons.  The  transfer  of  nuclear  materials  is  covered  by 
safeguar(fe  enforced  by  the  International  Atomic  Energy  Agency.  Over  the  years, 
mernbers  of  the  NPT  have  developed  lists  of  restricted  items  ana  technologies.  The 
U.S.  adheres  to  all  these  controls  and  has  introduced  its  own  restrictions  on  the 
spread  of  the  fissile  materials  necessary  for  weapons  production — plutonium  and 
uranium. 

The  final  issue  I  would  like  to  address  is  legislation  affecting  export  controls  and 
other  nonproliferation  measures,  specifically  the  provisions  the  Intelligence  Commu- 
nity needs  in  such  legislation. 

The  first  thing  I  would  say,  Mr.  Chairman,  is  that  the  bill  vou  introduced  at  the 
request  of  the  Administration  incorporates  provisions  which  address  the  Intelligence 
Community's  concerns  in  the  area  of  chemical,  biological,  and  missile  nonprohfera- 
tion  measures.  We  woriced  closely  with  the  other  agencies  that  developed  this  bill, 
and  have  endorsed  the  final  result.  Accordingly,  I  would  strongly  urge  that  these 
provisions  be  retained  in  the  final  bill  passed  by  the  Senate. 

To  aid  the  Committee's  deliberations,  I  would  like  to  outline  the  Community's  eq- 
uities in  this  area.  In  disseminating  our  intelligence,  one  of  our  primary  responsibil- 
ities and  duties  is  to  protect  the  sources  of  the  intelligence,  whether  human  or  tech- 
nical, and  the  methods  by  which  it  was  collected.  Sources  and  methods  are  most  at 
risk  when  Intelligence  information  is,  directly  or  indirectly,  made  public.  The  com- 
promise of  sources  and  methods  inevitably  results  in  a  diminished  capacity  to  collect 
intelligence  in  the  future. 

The  most  dramatic  consequence  of  a  compromise  of  intelligence  information  is  the 
threat  of  the  life  of  an  asset.  But  there  are  other  significant  consequences.  For  ex- 
ample, if  we  have  intelligence  indicating  a  particular  overseas  company  is  actually 
a  Libyan  front  company,  we  can  often  watch  that  company  to  learn  more  about 
Libya  s  program  and  its  acquisition  network.  U.S.  Government  action  that  publicly 
identifies  the  company  will  often  result  in  the  company  shutting  down  and  reopen- 
ing elsewhere  under  a  different  name.  Identifying  this  new  company  can  be  very  dif- 
ficult, and  meanwhile  we  have  lost  our  window  mto  the  broader  proliferation  activ- 
ity. This  is  not  to  say  intelligence  should  never  form  the  basis  for  overt  U.S.  Govern- 
ment action.  On  the  contrary,  it  qruite  often  does  and  I  feel  strongly  that  providing 
"actionable  intelligence"  is  of  the  highest  priority.  What  is  needed,  however,  is  the 
flexibility  to  take  the  action  that  will  best  achieve  our  nonproliferation  objectives — 
which  in  some  cases  may  mean  holding  off  on  overt  U.S.  Government  actions  to  pro- 
tect nonproliferation  sources  and  methods. 

The  first  is  to  ensure  that  sanctions  regimes  established  to  punish  proliferators 
permit  the  President  sufiicient  discretion  in  the  imposition  of  sanctions  to  protect 
intelligence  sources  and  methods.  The  second  goal  is  to  ensure  that  the  Executive 
Branch  not  be  statutorily  required  to  publish  lists  of  all  end-users  to  whom  exports 
of  technologies  or  commodities  are  controlled.  The  third  goal  is  to  ensure  that  the 


97 

Government  maintains  export  controls  sufficient  to  ensure  that  exports  of  critical 
technologies  are  compatible  with  U.S.  interests. 

The  Administration  proposals  achieve  the  first  goal  by  explicitly  permitting  the 
President  to  delay  the  imposition  of  sanctions  where  it  is  necessary  to  protect  intel- 
ligence sources  and  methods.  Let  me  emphasize  that  the  Intelligence  Community 
views  this  as  an  exceptional  remedy  that  would  have  limited  but  critical  application 
and  is  necessary  to  further  non proliferation  goals  in  the  long  term.  The  second  goal 
is  met  by  not  requiring  the  Intelligence  Community  to  create  lists  or  databases  of 
end-users  to  which  exports  of  goods  or  technologies  are  controlled,  but  still  ensuring 
that  intelligence  is  appropriately  made  available  to  other  agencies  for  purposes  oi 
analyzing  export  license  applications.  Finally,  the  Administration's  bill  would  not 
relax  or  eliminate  controls  on  key  technologies,  particularly  encryption  devices, 
which  could  be  damaging  to  U.S.  interests. 

This  is  the  basic  outline  of  the  issues  we  face.  I  would  offer  any  Nonproliferation 
Center  assistance  or  resources  which  you  or  your  staff  would  find  helpful  as  you  pro- 
ceed in  your  deliberations  on  these  important  issues. 


98 


THE  SECRETARY  OF  DEFENSE 
WASHINGTON.  THE  DISTRICT  OF  COLUMBIA 


I S  MAY  1994 


MEMORANDUM  FOR  PERSIAN  GULF  WAR  VETERANS 
SUBJECT:  Persian  Gulf  War  Health  Issues 


As  you  may  know,  there  have  been  reports  that  some  Persian  Gulf  War  veterans  are 
experiencing  health  problems  that  may  be  related  to  their  service  in  the  Gulf.  We  want  to  assure 
each  of  you  that  your  health  and  well-being  are  top  priorities  for  the  Department  of  Defense. 

There  are  many  hazards  of  war,  ranging  from  intense  combat  to  environmental  exposures. 
Anyone  who  has  health  problems  resulting  from  those  hazards  is  entitled  to  health  care.  If  you 
are  experiencing  problems,  please  come  in  for  a  medical  evaluation.  Active  duty  personnel  and 
their  eligible  family  members  should  report  to  any  military  hospital  and  ask  to  be  included  in  the 
Depanment's  Persian  Gulf  War  Veterans  Health  Surveillance  System.  You  will  receive  a  full 
medical  evaluation  and  any  medical  care  that  you  need.  Reserve  personnel  may  contact  either  a 
military  hospital  or  their  nearest  Veterans  Affairs  Medical  Center  and  ask  to  be  included  in  the 
DoD  Surveillance  System  or  the  VA's  Persian  Gulf  War  Health  Registry.  You  will  receive  a  full 
medical  examination.  Depending  on  the  results  of  the  evaluation  and  eligibility  status,  reserve 
personnel  will  receive  tnedicai  care  either  from  military  facilities  or  from  VA  facilities. 

There  have  been  reports  in  the  press  of  the  possibility  that  some  of  you  were  exposed  to 
chemical  or  biological  weapons  agents.  There  is  no  information,  classified  or  unclassified,  that 
indicates  that  chemical  or  biological  weapons  were  used  in  the  Persian  Gulf  There  have  also 
been  reports  that  some  veterans  believe  there  are  restrictions  on  what  they  can  say  about  potential 
exposures.  Please  be  assured  that  you  should  not  feel  constrained  in  any  way  from  discussing 
these  issues. 

We  are  indebted  to  each  one  of  you  for  your  service  to  your  country  during  the  Persian 
Gulf  War  and  throughout  your  military  careers.  We  also  want  to  be  sure  that  you  receive  any 
medical  care  you  need. 

Thaitk  you  for  your  service. 

y   John  M.  Shalikashvili  ^^  WiUia^.  Pen?     /V 

A  Chairman  Secretary  of  Defense^' 

V   |>f  the  Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff 


99 


THC  SECRETARY  OF  DEFENSE 
WASHINGTON'.  THC  DISTRICT  OF  COLUMBIA 


1 5  NAY  1934 


MEMORANDUM  FOR  SECRETARIES  OF  THE  MILITARY  DEPARTMENTS 
SUBJECT:  Persian  GulfWar  Health  Issues 


Chainnan  Shalikashvili  and  I  want  to  ensure  that  sick  Persian  Gulf  veterans  receive  the 
best  care  available.  The  attached  memorandum  provides  essential  reassurances  about  thaL 

The  memorandum  makes  the  following  points:  veterans  who  believe  they  have  health 
problems  resulting  from  service  in  the  Gulf  should  come  forward  for  examination  and  treatment; 
our  forces  were  not  aitacked  by  chemical  or  biological  weapons:  and.  military  personnel  are  not 
barred,  by  any  classification  restrictions,  from  discussing  issues  related  to  their  health. 

Please  ensure  that  this  memorandum  is  distributed  through  all  the  channels  necessary 
to  reach  the  men  and  women  who  served  in  Operations  Desert  Shield  and  Desert  Storm. 
Edwin  Dora.  Under  Secretary  of  Defense  for  Personnel  and  Readiness,  is  coordinating  the 
Depanment's  efforts  to  deal  with  the  health  effects  of  Persian  Gulf  service. 


Attachment: 
As  stated 


^JU^C^-  ^^ 


100 


in«TED  STATES  CENTRAL  COMMAND 

7J 13  SOUTH  BOUNDARY  BOULEVARD 
MACDILL  AIR  FORCE  BASE.  FLORIDA  33621-3101 

13  NOV  '1394 


CCJl 


Subject:      Freedom  of  Information  Act    (FOIA)    Request  94-41 

Mr.  James  Tulte 

Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Urban  Affairs 

Washington,  DC  20510-6075 

Dear  Mr.  Tuite: 

This  is  in  reply  to  a  FOIA  request  from  Senator  Riegle  dated 
16  Meurch  1994  and  received  within  the  US  Central  Command  5 
October  1994,  as  a  referral  from  the  Defense  Intelligence  Agency 
(DIA) .   The  DIA  searched  and  forwarded  nine  docximents  responsive 
to  your  request  for  our  review  amd  release  determination. 

These  documents  were  reviewed  and  determined  to  be  properly 
classified  and  should  not  be  reclassified  at  this  time.   They 
will  be  returned  to  the  Secretary  of  the  Senate,  Office  of 
Secxirity,  U.S.  Capitol  S-407,  Washington,  DC  to  Mr.  Michael 
OiSilvestro's  attention. 

If  you  have  additional  questions  regarding  your  request, 
Major  Blaisdell  or  Senior  Master  Sergeant  Skinner  are  the 
command's  FOIA  Officers  and  stand  ready  to  assist  you.   You  may 
reach  them  at  (813)  828-6679/6685.   When  calling,  please  refer  to 
FOIA  number  94-41. 


Sincerely, 


irt  J.  Itarti'nelli 
lonel,    United  States  Air  Force 
rector  of  Manpower,    Personnel 
and  Administration 


Enclosures 


101 


UNDER  SECRETARY  OF  DEFENSE   H^^ 

4000  DEFENSE  PENTAGON  \,  irA  T 

WASHINGTON.  DC.  20301-4000  O*  '     '    '' 


PCmONMCL  AMO 

MOOINCSS 


r-    :.  2  1994 


Honorable  Donald  W.  Riegle,  Jr. 

Chainnan 

Conunictee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Urban  Affairs 

United  States  Senate 

Washington,  DC  20510 

Dear  Mr.  Chaiiman: 

Thank  you  for  your  letter  of  July  29,  requesting  information  to  questions  from  the  May 
25  Hearing  on  U.S.  Dual  Use  Exports  to  Iraq  and  their  Impaa  on  the  Health  of  Gulf  War 
Veterans.  An  interim  response  was  sent  on  August  31.  The  unclassified  responses  are  enclosed. 
They  also  are  being  provided  to  Ms.  Kelly  Cordes  as  requested.  The  classified  responses  have 
been  forwarded  under  separate  correspondence  in  accordance  with  the  appropriate  security 
procedures. 

I  want  to  thank  you  for  your  concern  and  interest.  Please  be  assured  tiiat  we  are  deeply 
committed  to  the  health  and  well  being  of  our  current  and  former  Service  members  and  it  remains 
a  top  priority  within  the  Department. 


Sincerely, 


Enclosure: 
As  stated 

cc: 

Honorable  Alfonse  D'Amato 

Ranking  Republican 

Ms.  Kelly  Cordes 
Chief  Clerk 


W 


102 


3.4 


Department  of  Veterans'  Affairs 
Gulf  War  Syndrome  Registry 


BREAKDOWN  BY  STATE  OF  RESIDENCE  OF  THE  12,774 
VETERANS  WHO  HAVE  TAKEN  THE  GULF  WAR  REGISTRY 
EXAM  THROUGH  MARCH  1994. 

State  of  Residence  Frequency  Percent  of  Total 

Alabama  979  7.7 

Arizona  258  2.0 

Arkansas  253 

California  439 

Colorado  161  1,3 

Connecticut  37  0.3 

Delaware  88  0.7 

District  of  Columbia  62  0.5 

Florida  612  4.8 

Georgia  923  7.2 

Hawaii  35  0.3 

Idaho  26  0.2 

Illinois  317  2.5 

Indiana  356  2.8 

Iowa  196  1.5 

Kansas  152  1.2 

Kentucky  352  2.8 

Louisiana  184  1.4 

Maine  146  1.1 

Maryland  145  1.1 

Massachusetts  149  1.2 

Michigan  277  2.2 

Minnesota  205  1.6 

Mississippi  233  1.8 

Missouri  319  2.5 

Montana  76  0.6 

Nebraska  140  1.1 

Nevada  27  0.2 

New  Hampshire  162  1.3 


103 

State  of  Residence  Frequency                  Percent  of  Total 

New  Jersey  119  0.9 

New  Mexico  150  1.2 

New  York  509  4*0 

North  Carolina  827  6.5 

North  Dakota  82  0.6 


Ohio  269  2.1 

Oklahoma  191  1.5 

Oregon  185  1.4 

Pennsylvania  589  4.G 

Puerto  Rico  48  0.4 

Rhode  Island  34  oT 

South  Carolina  238  1.9 

South  Dakota  61  0.5 

Tennessee  410  3.2 

Texas  630  4.9 

Utah  10  OT 

Vermont  85  0.7 

Virginia  248  1.9 

Washington  66  0.5 

West  Virginia  69  0.5 

Wisconsin  630  4.9 

Wyoming  13  0.1 


104 


QUESTIONS  SUBMITTED  BY 

HONORABLE  DONALD  W.  RIEGLE,  Jr^  CHAIRMAN 

COMMITTEE  ON  BANKING,  HOUSING,  AND  URBAN  AFFAIRS 

VS.  DUAL  USE  EXPORTS  TO  IRAQ  AND  THEIR  IMPACT 
ON  THE  HEALTH  OF  GULF  WAR  VETERANS 

MAY  25, 1994 


QUESTIONS  FOR  HONORABLE  EDWIN  DORN, 

UNDERSECRETARY  OF  DEFENSE  FOR 

PERSONNEL  AND  READINESS 

[Senator  Riegle  letter  of  July  29, 1994] 


Questions  from  Chairman  Riegle 

0.1.  Was  the  Department  of  Etefense  intelligence  apparatus  aware  of  the  items  exported 
to  Iraq  by  the  United  States  which  were  converted  to  use  in  the  Iraqi  chemical,  biological. 
and  nuclear  programs  prior  to  the  Pereian  Gulf  War?  Provide  specific  details. 

A.l.  During  the  earlier  years  associated  with  Iraq's  build-up  of  its  scientific,  industrial 
and  military  capabilities,  Iraq  was  neither  a  proscribed  nation  to  be  denied  military 
critical  technology,  nor  an  enemy.  The  U.S.  intelligence  community  is  forbidden  from 
monitoring  the  activities  of  U.S.  citizens  and  U.S.  companies.  Consequently,  very  little 
was  known  by  the  Intelligence  Community  about  U.S.  exports  of  technology  with 
military  potential,  particularly  to  a  non-proscribed  non-enemy  nation,  unless  it  was 
informed  of  such  exports  by  the  Department  of  Commerce.  During  1980-1994,  the 
Department  of  Commerce  requested  that  DoD  review  only  16  dual-use  export  cases.  Of 
these,  only  two  were  forwarded  to  the  DIA  for  technical  review.  They  involved 
computers  and  signal  processing  equipment.  DIA  recommended  denial  in  both  cases. 
DIA  was  aware  of  the  illegal  export  of  thiodiglycol  to  Iraq  by  the  Baltimore  company 
Alcolac.  DIA  assisted  customs  and  the  FBI  in  their  investigation  and  successful 
prosecution  of  that  company. 


0.2.  Were  Iraqi  chemical  and  biological  facilities  among  the  priority  targets  hit  bv 
Coalition  bombers  during  the  first  davs  of  the  air  war? 

A.2.  Yes.  Some  Iraqi  chemical  and  biological  (CB)  facilities  were  priority  targets  and 
were  among  the  first  attacked  on  and  around  the  first  days  of  the  air  war.  However,  not 
every  CB  target  was  attacked  during  the  first  days.  CB  targets  were  themselves 
prioritized,  generally  by  the  intelligence  community,  then  more  specifically  by  the 


105 

CENTCOM  operators  and  were  attacked  accordingly.  Generally  speaking,  CB  Urgels 
were  attacked  at  the  very  beginning  of  the  air  war  and  throughout  the  air  campaign. 


O.3.  Were  U.S.  national  laboratories  contacted  prior  to  the  war  and  requested  to  assess 
the  danper  from  the  fallout  of  bombing  Iraqi  chemical,  biological,  and  nuclear  facilities? 
What  was  their  advice? 

A.3.  Yes.  The  Defense  Nuclear  Agency  (DNA)  was  tasked  to  assess  the  danger  of  fallout 
from  bombed  Iraqi  facilities.  An  example  of  the  analysis  conducted  by  the  DNA  to 
assess  the  effects  of  bombing  Nuclear,  Biological  and  Chemical  (NBC)  facilities  is  at 
Attachment  A.  DNA  developed  the  Army's  Automated  NBC  Information  System 
(ANBACIS  n)  to  analyze  the  impact  of  NBC  contamination  on  military  operations. 
Downwind  hazard  modeling  of  the  southem-most  storage  facilities  showed  that  chemical 
contamination  would  not  occur  beyond  11.1  kilometers  downwind  from  the  target  The 
closest  U.S.  or  coalition  forces  to  the  Ash  Shuyabah  chemical  storage  area,  the  southern- 
most storage  facility,  was  150  kilometers.  It  is  for  this  reason  that  reports  of  detections 
associated  with  downwind  drift  from  bombed  chemical  facilities  are  discounted. 

The  ability  to  quickly  communicate  with  DNA  analysts  was  available  to 
commanders  in  the  Gulf  theater.  Twenty-one  sets  of  ANBACIS  II  equipment,  which 
provided  direct  conimunications  between  the  units  and  DNA  stateside,  were  distributed  in 
theater.  Over  600  plots  were  run  by  DNA  at  the  request  of  deployed  units  conducting 
vulnerability  analysis.  A  complete  description  of  the  ANBACIS  system  and  how  it 
functioned  during  the  war  is  at  Attachment  A. 


O.4.  Did  the  automatic  chemical  agent  detection  alarms  begin  to  sound  more  often  with 
the  initiation  of  the  Coalition  bombings?  If  so.  whv? 

A.4.  Yes,  because  more  alarms  (M8A1  and  M43A1)  were  placed  into  operation  after  the 
bombing  started  to  prepare  for  any  Iraqi  retaliation.  The  M8A1  alarm  is  activated  during 
normal  preventive  maintenance  checks  and  services  (see  Attachment  B).  The  M43A1 
(the  detector  component  of  the  M8A1  system)  will  alarm  when  exposed  to  heavy 
concentrations  of  rocket  propellant  smoke,  screening  smoke,  signaling  smoke,  when 
engine  exhaust  is  present  or  when  a  nuclear  explosion  occurs.  Additionally,  the  alarm 
will  sound  in  response  to  a  heavy  concentration  of  tobacco  smoke,  burning  rubber, 
insecticides,  low  battery  indicator,  or  strong  percussion  such  as  proximity  to  heavy 
vehicles  or  incoming  artillery.  There  were  approximately  13,200  M8A1  deteaors  in 
theater. 


106 

0.5.  Was  the  M8A1  automatic  chemical  agent  detection  alarm  deployed  during  the 
Persian  Gulf  War  suFricientIv  sensitive  to  detect  chronic  harmful  exposure  levels  of 
chemical  nerve  agents? 

A. 5.  Yes,  for  levels  known  to  be  hannful.  The  M8A1  G  and  VX  agent  sensitivity  of  0.1- 
0.2  mg-min/m3  is  more  than  adequate  to  warn  ground  troops  against  known  effects  of 
chemical  warfare  nerve  agents.    The  only  known  effect  of  nerve  agents  at  this  level  of 
concentration  is  pinpointed  pupils. 


0.6.  Was  the  M256  or  M256A 1  chemical  agent  kit  sufficiently  sensitive  to  detect 
harmful  exposure  levels  of  chemical  blister  agents  that  could  pose  a  chronic  exposure 
hazard  to  U.S.  troops? 

A.6.  The  M256A1  sensitivity  to  blister  agents  is  as  follows,  and  is  more  than  adequate 
to  warn  ground  troops  against  blister  agent  vapors:  H  -  2mg-min/m3;  L  -  9mg-min/nn3; 
and  CX  -  3mg-min/m3.    Normally,  the  first  indication  of  exposure  to  blister  agent  vapors 
is  eye  injury,  which  occurs  at  concentrations  of  100-200  Ct(mg-min/m3).  Incapacitating 
blisters  occur  at  2,000  Ct(mg-min/m3),  death  through  respiratory  inhalation  at  1,500 
Ct(mg-min/m3). 


O.7.  Were  positive  readings  ever  obtained  with  the  M256  or  M256A1  test  kits?  Include 
in  your  answer  positive  results  obtained  even  though  another  tests  may  have  been 
conducted  with  negative  results?  How  long  does  it  take  to  conduct  an  M256A1  kit 
reading? 

A. 7.  The  records  reviewed  to  date  have  not  revealed  any  positive  readings.  M256A1 
response  time  for  G.V.H.L.CX,  and  CK  is  15  minutes  and  25  minutes  for  AC. 

G  -  non-persistent  nerve  agent 

V  -  persistent  nerve  agent 

H  -  mustard  or  blister  agent 

L  -  lewisite  or  blister  agent 

CX  -  choking  agent 

CK  -  blood  agent 

AC  -  blood  agent 

O.8.  Does  the  M 17  gas  mask  provide  sufficient  protection  against  chronic  exposures  to 
chemical  nerve  agents?  If  so.  why  is  it  not  recommended  for  use  in  chronic  exposures  in 
U.S.  Army  material  safety  data  sheets? 

A. 8.  Yes.  Material  safety  data  sheets  provide  infonnation  on  safe  storage,  handling,  and 
disposal  of  all  types  of  chemical  and  hazardous  materials  throughout  the  civilian, 
military,  and  industrial  communities.  The  particular  material  safety  data  sheets  (;ontained 
in  the  Senate  Banking  Committee  Report  of  May  25,  1994,  for  example,  refer  to 


107 


protective  measures  required  by  personnel  working  in  production,  depot  storage,  and 
transportation  of  chemical  material.  The  possible  exposure  to  very  high  concentrations  of 
chemicals  and  hazardous  materials  in  these  circumstances  requires  levels  of  protection 
that  far  exceed  tactical  military  requirements.  Soldiers  require  protection  from  fiefd 
concentrations  of  chemical  agents  and  therefore,  soldier  protective  equipment  must  be 
more  rugged,  have  greater  wear  time,  require  less  logistic  support,  and  be  light  weight 
equipment  available  for  non-tactical  applications.  For  example,  the  soldier's  field  mask 
must  allow  for  weapons  sighting,  be  worn  in  extreme  hot  and  extreme  cold,  and  be  strong 
enough  to  survive  infantry  operations. 


O.9.  Did  the  U.S.  have  field  automatic  biological  detection  monitors  deployed  durine  the 
Persian  Gulf  War?  What  type?  Are  they  currently  deployed  with  U.S.  field  units? 

A.9.  Automatic  biological  detection  nronitors  did  not  exist  during  the  Gulf  War.  All 
biological  detectors  were  manually  operated.  Biological  agent  detection  units  are 
deployed  based  upon  theater  requirements.  If  a  biological  detection  requirement  is 
identified  in  the  force  structure,  a  chemical  corps  units  will  be  deployed  for  that  purpose. 
See  response  to  Question  #14  for  additional  information. 


O.IO.  Are  all  biological  agents  lethal?  Isn't  it  true  that  one  biological  warfare  strategy  is 
to  debilitate  vour  adversary's  capabilities  and  another  is  to  overload  his  medical  facilities? 

A.IO.  No.  Not  all  biological  warfare  agents  arc  lethal;  some  are  only  lethal  if  untreated, 
while  others  are  almost  always  lethal,  even  with  medical  treatment.  Incapacitating  BW 
agents  could  be  used  to  debilitate  an  adversary's  capabilities  and  to  overload  his  medical 
facilities.  Bacillus  anthracis,  botulinum  toxin,  francisella,  tularensis,  and  yersinia  pestis 
are  examples  of  lethal  agents;  VEE  virus,  Q  fever,  and  staph  enterotoxin  B  are  examples 
of  incapacitating  agents.  The  BW  strategy  statentent  is  true  for  chemical,  biological, 
nuclear,  unconventional  and  conventional  warfare  strategy. 


0. 1 1 .  Are  the  presence  of  sick  or  dead  animals  and  birds  one  of  the  indicators  U.S. 
forees  are  trained  to  look  for  as  a  warning  of  biological  warfare  agent  use? 

All.    Yes.  The  BW  usage  indicators  are: 

o  Occurrence  of  acutely  ill  military  and  civilian  patients 

o  Illness  reflects  an  unusual  or  impossible  agent  for  the  geographical 

area 
o  Unusual  distribution  of  disease 
o  Unexplained  number  of  dead  aninuils 
o  Direct  evidence  •  discovery  of  munitions  with  BW  agents. 


108 

Q.12.  Might  widespread  flu-like  symptoms  also  be  an  indicator  of  biological  warfare 
use? 

A. 12.  Possibly.  Some  infectious  agents  known  to  be  potential  biological  warfare  agents 
can  have  flu-like  symptoms  as  part  of  an  early  infection.  Examples  would  be  Q-fever, 
anthrax,  tularemia,  and  plague.  Ru-like  symptoms  including  fever,  sore  throat,  cough, 
loss  of  appetite,  and  muscle  and  joint  aches  are  very  non-specific  and  are  generally  the 
first  signs  of  any  infectious  disease,  many  of  which  are  not  known  to  be  biological 
warfare  threats. 


0.13.  Were  there  outbreaks  of  antibiotic  resistant  strains  of  E.  Coli  and  Shigella  among 
U.S.  forces  during  Operations  Desert  Shield  or  Desert  Storm?  How  were  the  bacteria 
identified?  Given  the  nature  of  the  U.S.  exports  to  the  Iraq  Atomic  Energy  Commission- 
were  full  DNA  polymerase  chain  reaction  studies  conducted  on  these  bacteria  to 
determine  if  they  were  genetically  modified? 

^■13.  Approximately  40-60%  of  enterotoxigenic  E.  Coli  and  20-80%  of  Shigella  spp. 
isolated  from  cases  of  acute  diarrhea  among  Desert  Shield  troops  were  resistant  to 
standard  antibiotics  used  to  treat  diarrhea  (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole,  tetracycline, 
and  ampicillin).  Resistance  was  determined  using  standard  laboratory  methods.  It  was 
also  found  that  no  single  strain  of  bacterial  eoteropathogen  was  Che  cause  of  antibiotic 
resistant  diarrhea.  Enteric  bacterial  pathogens  resistance  to  commonly  used  antibiotics 
were  expected  at  the  beginning  of  Operation  Desert  Shield  because  resistant  organisms 
are  now  found  throughout  the  worid.  particuiariy  in  developing  and  tropical  countries. 
Antibiotic  resistant  enteric  disease  pathogens  can  be  obtained  easily  in  nearly  all 
tropical/developing  countries  by  using  simple,  standard  laboratory  techniques;  genetic 
modification  is  not  necessary.  Full  DNA  PCR  analysis  was  not  performed  because  there 
was  nothing  unusual  or  unexpected  about  the  resistant,  bacterial,  enteropathogens 
identified  in  the  Gulf. 


0.i4.  What  procedures  did  the  U.S.  follow  to  determine  whether  U.S.  forces  were 
exposed  to  biological  agents?  What  was  tested  for?  What  were  the  results  of  those  tests? 

A.M.  Several  years  before  the  Gulf  War,  U.S.  Aitay  scientists  a.id  engineers  crafted  a 
contingency  plan  to  address  the  threat  of  biological  agents.  A  monoclonal  antibody 
technology  detector  test  was  developed.  When  intelligence  sources  assessed  Iraq  as 
having  a  potential  anthrax  and  botulinum  toxin  oRensive  capability,  ten  thousand  anthrax 
and  ten  thousand  botulinum  toxin  test  kits  were  distributed  throughout  the  Desert  Storm 
theater  of  action.  No  biological  warfare  agents  were  identified  during  Operation  Desert 
Shield/Storm. 


109 

Fifteen  teams  from  the  9th  Chemical  Company  were  deployed  by  the  U.S.  Army 
to  collect  and  analyze  samples  using  the  XM-2,  a  high  volume  air  sampler,  which 
operates  by  collecting  aerosolized  material  into  a  liquid  solution.  That  solution  can  be 
analyzed  to  determine  the  presence  of  biological  warfare  materials. 

The  Naval  Medical  Research  and  Development  Command  deployed  the  Navy 
Forward  Laboratory  (NFL)  to  perform  the  biological  warfare  (BW)  analysis  mission. 
Other  NFL  missions  during  Operation  Desert  Shield/Storm  were: 

o  Laboratory  diagnosis  of  clinical  cases  of  infectious  diseases 

o  Threat  assessment  of  infectious  diseases  of  military  importance 

o  Detection  capabUity  for  potential  BW  agents 

0  Public  health  assistance  to  the  local  population  and  to  the  Coalition  Forces. 

The  NFL  consisted  of  four  microbiologists,  two  infectious  disease  specialists,  and 
two  advanced  lab  technologists.  The  laboratory  had  the  capability  to  test  for  the 
following  agents:  salmonella,  shigella,  vibrio  cholera,  V.  parhemonlyticus,  escherichia 
coli,  salmonella  typi,  s.  partyphi,  yersinia  enterocolitica,  Cryptosporidium,  rotavirus, 
legionella  pneumophila,  yersina  pestis,  francisilla  tularensis,  neiserra  meningitidis,  N. 
gonorrhoeae,  straphylococcus,  streptococcus,  hepatitis  A,B,  hantaan  viriis,  chlamydia, 
intestinal  ova  and  parasites,  malaria  parasites,  sandfly  fever  (Naples  and  Sicilian),  West 
Nile  fever.  Rift  Valley  Fever,  Crimean-Congo  Hemorrhagic  fever,  sindbis,  dengue,  Q 
fever,  murine  typhus,  Mediterranean  spotted  fever,  mycoplasma  pneumoniae,  adenovirus, 
parainfluenza  virus  1,2,3,  influenza  vims  A&B,  respiratory  syncitial  virus,  steptococcus 
pyogenes,  neisseria  meningitidis,  and  streptococcus  pneumoniae. 

The  NFL  could  perform  specific  BW  agent  identification  by  performing  bacterial 
culture  and  antibiotic  sensitivities,  indirect  fluorescent  antibody  assay,  antigen  capture 
ELISA,  IgM  and  IgG  capture  ELISA,  and  polymerase  chain  reaction  assay.  The  labs 
conducted  analysis  of  dead  animals,  verified  air  samples  collected  by  the  biological 
sampling  teams,  tested  water  and  soil  for  agents  and  toxins,  and  analyzed  the  rapid  field 
assays. 

In  addition,  U.S.  Army  specialists  provided  B  W  consultation  and  hands-on 
assistance  to  allies  in  the  British,  Canadian,  and  French  armies.    Great  Britain  and 
Canada  developed  and  deployed  reconnaissance  vehicles,  each  of  which  included  an  air 
sampler,  a  particle  sizer  and  various  antibody-based  tests  (immunoassays).  The  French 
also  deployed  antibody-based  tests  for  BW  agents  with  assistance  from  U.S.  Array 
specialists  from  Fort  Detrick  and  Edgewood  Arsenal. 


0.15.  Were  any  biological  agents  or  materials  capable  of  being  used  to  cause  disease  or 
other  illnesses  di.scovered  by  the  U.S.  or  any  other  Coalition  forces  in  Iraq.  Kuwait,  or 
Saudi  Arabia?  What  were  tho;;e  materials? 


110 

A. 15.  No  such  materials  were  found  by  U.S.  or  Coalition  forces. 


0.16.  Were  any  Iraqi  vaccines  discovered  or  did  interviews  of  enemy  prisoners  of  war. 
or  others,  reveal  what  biological  warfare-related  materials  the  Iraqis  had  defended 
against? 

A.16.  No. 


Q17.  Did  Iraq  have  a  biological  warfare  program  that  appeared  to  be  offensive  in  nature? 

A17.  Yes.  The  classified  package  provides  additional  information  and  is  being  addressed 
by  separate  correspondence. 


0.18.  In  the  spring  of  1993.  the  United  Nations  Special  Commission  on  Iraq  sent  a 
biological  warfare  inspection  team  to  Iraq  under  the  leadership  of  U.S.  Armv  Colonel 
David  Franz  (USAMRIID).  One  of  the  sites  visited  was  a  facility  of  the  Iraqi  Atomic 
Energy  Commission  which  also  does  biological  research.  Was  Colonel  Franz  briefed  on 
the  nature  of  the  materials  shipped  bv  the  United  States  to  Iraq  prior  to  the  war  to  alert 
him  that  genetic  research  may  have  been  being  conducted. 

A.I8.    Prior  to  his  leading  the  UNSCOM  BW  inspection  team  in  March  1993,  COL 
Franz  was  briefed  on  the  major  microbial  strains  which  the  Iraqis  had  obtained  from  the 
ATCC  before  the  war.  Observation  and  questions  regarding  genetic  research  are  part  of 
the  biological  inspection  modus  operandi,  with  or  without  a  prebrief  on  the  subject.  Mr. 
Jim  Tuite  showed  COL  Franz  a  list  in  the  spring  of  1994  that  included  genetic  constructs 
and  vectors.  During  COL  Franz's  visits  to  Tuwaitha  in  March  1993  and  M-.y/June  1994, 
he  found  no  evidence  of  prohibited  research,  genetic  or  classical,  ongoing,  planned  or 
having  been  conducted  at  Tuwaitha. 


Ill 

Q.19.  Were  chemical  munitions  or  binary  precvirsor  materials  capable  of  being 
used  in  chemical  warfare  discovered  in  any  area  of  Iraq.  Kuwait,  or  Saudi 
Arabia  before,  during,  or  after  the  war  by  U.S.  forces.  U.S.  civilian  personnel, 
or  other  coalition  participants? 

A.  19.  Classified  response  received  from  the  Department  of  Defense  [deleted]. 
Response  archived  in  U.S.  Senate  Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Urban 
Affairs  files. 

Q.20.  What  evidence,  if  any,  is  there  concerning  the  forward  deployment  of 
chemical  and  biological  warfare  agents  or  weapons  prior  to  or  during  the 
Persian  Gulf  conflict?  What  evedence.  if  any,  is  there  of  Iraqi  attempts  to 
avoid  destruction  of  chemical  or  biological  warfare  agents  or  weapons  by 
coalition  bombings?   For  example,  transshipment  activity  just  prior  to  the 
initiation  of  the  air  war  from  chemical  production  facilities  such  as  Samarra. 
Al  Muthanna.  Habbanivah.  or  others? 

A.20.  Classified  response  received  from  the  Department  of  Defense  [deleted]. 
Response  archived  in  U.S.  Senate  Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Urban 
Affairs  files. 


112 

0.21 .  What  evidence,  if  any,  exists  of  Iraqi  chemical  and  biological  warfare  defensive 
measures  during  or  prior  to  the  Persian  Gulf  War? 

A. 21.  Iraq  claims  it  did  not  have  a  dedicated  BW  defensive  progrant  Iraq  distributed 
drugs  for  the  treatment  of  nerve  and  mustard  exposure  to  at  least  some  of  its  Republican 
Guard  Divisions.  There  was  an  effort  to  outfit  their  troops  with  chemical  protective  gear; 
this  usually  consisted  of  a  gas  mask,  gloves,  boots,  simple  poncho,  and  individual 
chemical  agent  antidote  kits.  Additionally,  decontamination  stations  were  established 
throughout  Iraq. 

Q.22.  What  evidence,  if  any,  exists  of  Iraqi  command  instructions  to  use 
chemical  weapons  prior  to  or  during  the  war? 

A.22.  Classified  response  received  from  the  Department  of  Defense  [deleted]. 
Response  archived  in  U.S.  Senate  Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Urban 
Affairs  files. 

Q.23.  Were  any  Iraqi  chemical  units  in  Iraq  or  Kuwait  located  or  reported  on 
by  U.S.  or  coalition  sources  during  Operation  Desert  Shield  or  Desert  Storm? 
Explain? 

A.23.  Classified  response  received  from  the  Department  of  Defense  [deleted], 
response  archived  in  U.S.  Senate  Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Urban 
Affairs  files. 


113 

0.24.  In  the  Department  of  Defense's  final  report  to  Congress  on  the  Conduct  of  the 
Persian  Gulf  War,  it  was  reported  that  88  Scud  launches  were  detected.  Saddam  Hussein 
has  claimed  to  have  launched  at  least  93  Scuds.  Can  vou  explain  the  discrepancy?  Were 
any  Scud  missiles  launched  bv  Iraq  against  Turkey  or  any  other  location  other  than  Israel 
or  Saudi  Arabia?  Were  U.S.  forces  and  dependent  personnel  in  Turkey  ever  ordered  into 
MOPP  gear? 

A.24.    The  Department  records  indicate  a  total  of  88  SCUD  launches  against  Israeli  and 
Saudi  Arabian  targets  only.  Iraq  only  launched  SCUD  missiles  against  Israel  and  Saudi 
Arabia.  We  cannot  explain  the  discrepancy  between  Saddam's  claim  to  have  launched  at 
least  93  SCUDs.  All  units,  which  were  in  a  SCUD  missile  threat  area,  responded  with 
chemical  defense  standard  operating  procedures.  Commanders  at  the  lowest  level  of 
command  determined  the  appropriate  level  of  chemical  defense  for  their  units.  No 
specific  records  were  maintained  at  the  unit  level  to  indicate  the  use  of  MOPP  gear.  The 
Department  is  not  aware  of  any  personnel  in  Turkey  being  ordered  into  MOPP  gear. 


0.25.  What  targets  were  Spirit  1.  Spirit  2.  and  Spirit  3  fU.S.  Air  Force  AC-1 30  Spectre 
gunships)  directed  against  on  January  31.  1991?  Were  any  of  the  targets  of  their  mission 
-  in  which  one  of  these  aircraft  was  shot  down  in  the  battle  for  Khafji  -  suspected  of 
being  chemical,  biological,  or  nuclear  weapons?  What  were  the  results  of  those 
missions? 

A.25.  Spirits  01. 02,  and  03  (three  AC-130H  aircraft)  were  launched  sequentially  to 
provide  close  air  support  to  U.S.  ground  forces  engaged  in  and  around  the  town  of  Khafji. 
Spirits  01  and  02  attacked  the  following  targets:  a  tnick  park,  a  border  post,  a  radio 
station  and  antenna,  and  a  radar  site  with  associated  Armored  Personnel  Carriers  (APCs) 
and  personnel.  Spirit  03  attacked  similar  targets;  however,  the  specific  targets  cannot  be 
determined  because  the  aircraft  was  shot  down  during  the  mission.  Spirit  03  was 
attacking  a  free  rocket  over  ground  (FROG)  missile  site  just  before  it  was  shot  down. 
None  of  the  targets  were  NBC.  The  results  of  the  attacks  indicate  minimal  damage 
inflicted  on  the  truck  park,  border  post,  and  radio  station.  Three  APCs  were  destroyed 
around  and  near  the  radar  site. 


114 

Q.26.  Did  Iraq  conduct  test  firings  of  Scuds  or  other  short  or  medium  range 
ballistic  missiles  during  Operation  Desert  Shield?  What  was  the  assessed 
purpose  for  these  tests  since  Iraq  already  had  extensive  knowledge  of  the 
capabilities  of  Scud  missiles? 

A.26.  Classified  response  received  from  the  Department  of  Defense  [deleted]. 
Response  archived  in  U.S.  Senate  Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Urban 
Affairs  files. 

Q.27.  Did  Iraq  have  the  capability  to  deliver  biological  weapons  via  ground- 
based  aerosol  generators,  aircraft,  helicopters,  or  FAW  missiles?   Do  they  have 
any  other  means  of  delivering  biological  weapons? 

A.27.  Classified  response  received  from  the  Department  of  Defense  [deleted]. 
Response  archived  in  U.S.  Senate  Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Urban 
Affairs  files. 

Q.28.  What  was  the  Defense  Intelligence  Agency  evaluation  of  Iraq's  chemical 
and  biological  weapons  programs  and  delivery  means  prior  to.  during,  and 
after  the  Persian  Gulf  War?  What  delivery  means  were  within  range  of 
coalition  forces  at  the  beginning  of  the  air  war  and  by  the  end  of  the  ground 
war? 

A.28.  Classified  response  received  from  the  Department  of  Defense  [deleted]. 
Response  archived  in  U.S.  Senate  Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Urban 
Affairs  files. 


0.28.  Did  any  Iraqi  aircraft,  helicopter,  or  FAW  ground-to-ground  missile  ever  penetrate 
Saudi  airspace  or  areas  over  U.S.  naval  forces  in  the  Persian  Gulf?  Include  in  vour 
answer  any  areas  where  chemical  and  biological  materials  could  have  been  distributed  to 
contaminate  U.S.  forces  even  if  not  directly  over  Saudi  Arabia. 

A.28.  The  Iraqi  Scud  attacks  on  Saudi  Arabia,  Bahrain  and  Israel  were  highly  publicized. 
The  Iraqi  offensive  air  capability  was  destroyed  the  first  day  of  the  ground  war.  There 
was  no  release  of  chemical  or  biological  materials. 


115 


Q.30.  Describe  the  evolution  of  Iraq's  battlefield  employment  of  chemical 
weapons  during  the  Iran-Iraq  war,  did  Iraq's  ability  to  use  these  weapons 
improve  over  the  course  of  the  war? 

A.30.  Classified  response  received  from  the  Department  of  Defense  [deleted]. 
Response  archived  in  U.S.  Senate  Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Urban 
Affairs  files. 

Q.31.  What  chemical  and  biological  agents  were  assessed  to  be  in  the  Iraqi 
operational  inventories  and  test  inventories  prior  to  the  Persian  Gulf  War? 

A.31.  Classified  response  received  from  the  Department  of  Defense  [deleted]. 
Response  archived  in  U.S.  Senate  Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Urban 
Affairs  files. 


0.:^2.  Were  I  IS.  or  NATO  chemical  protective  overganrv-niLs  or  masks  vulnerable  to 
specific  tvix^s  of  chemical  or  biological  agents  in  the  Iraqi  inventory? 

A.  32.  There  were  no  equipment  vulnerabilities  specific  to  the  Iraqi  chennical  agent 
inventory.  No  biological  warfare  agents  were  identified  during  Operation  Desert 
Shield/Storm. 


O.  33.  Was  IIS,  and  NATO  detection  equipment  capable  of  detecting  Iraqi  biological 
agenLs?  Explain. 

A.33.  Yes,  although  U.S.  Forces  did  not  deploy  any  NATO  biological  detection 
equipment  to  Southwest  Asia  .  See  Response  to  Question  #14  for  information  on  U.S. 
equipment 

0.34.    What  evidence  exists,  if  anv.  to  indicate  that  Iraq  deployed  chemical  mines  in  tlK 
Kuwaiti  theater  of  operations? 

A.34.    There  is  no  evidence  that  Iraq  deployed  chemical  mines  in  the  KTO.  In  fact,  over 
350.000  Iraqi  mines  have  been  found  and  removed  from  Kuwait,  none  of  which  were 
chemical  mines. 


116 

Q.35.  Did  Iraq  deploy  any  chemical  units  or  establish  any  chemical 
decontamination  sites  in  the  Kuwaiti  or  Iraqi  theater  of  operations  -  or  in  the 
disputed  territories? 

A.35.  Classified  response  received  from  the  Department  of  Defense  [deleted]. 
Response  archived  in  U.S.  Senate  Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Affairs 
files. 

Q.36.  Which  country  provided  the  chemical  Scud  warheads  to  Iraq  that  were 
later  located  by  the  UN  inspections?   If  by  another  country,  how  many  of  these 
warheads  were  initially  provided?   Did  Iraq  also  manufacture  its  own? 

A.36.  Classified  response  received  from  the  Department  of  Defense  [deleted]. 
Response  archived  in  U.S.  Senate  Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Affairs 
files. 

Q.37.  Was  the  former  Soviet  Union  ever  suspected  of  providing  chemical  or 
biological  warfare  training  to  Iraqi  officers  either  in  Iraq,  the  Soviet  Union,  or 
any  other  country?   Explain. 

A.37.  Classified  response  received  from  the  Department  of  Defense  [deleted]. 
Response  archived  in  U.S.  Senate  Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Affairs 
files]. 

Q.38.  Is  the  Department  of  Defense  aware  of  any  Soviet  assistance  to  the 
Iraqis  in  setting  up  any  chemical  training  center  or  production  facility  in  Iraq? 
Explain. 

A.38.  Classified  response  received  from  the  Department  of  Defense  [deleted]. 
Response  archived  in  U.S.  Senate  Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Affairs 
files. 

0.39.  Did  the  United  States  ever  provide  chemical  or  biological  warfare  training  to  Iraqi 
officers  either  in  Iraq,  the  United  States,  or  any  other  country.  Explain. 

A.39.  At  one  tinie  the  United  States  and  Iraq  had  friendly  relationships,  to  include 
niiUtary  exchange  programs.  Iraqi  officers  attended  the  U.S  Army  Chemical  School  until 
the  1978-1979  timeframe. 


117 

O.40,    Is  (h^re  ^V  classified  or  uncla-ssified  information  that  would  indicate  anv 
g;^PQ$Mres  (0  or  detections  of  chemical  or  biological  aoentj;? 

AJQ.    Other  than  the  Czech  detections  in  January  of  1991 ,  which  have  been  discussed  at 
length  during  testimony  and  other  questions  for  the  record,  there  is  no  information, 
classified  or  unclassified,  which  would  indicate  any  exposures  to  or  valid  confirmed 
detections  of  chemical  or  biological  agents.  There  were  many,  probably  thousands,  of 
false  chemical  alarms  experienced  by  the  Coalition;  however,  no  alarm  ever  was  verified 
using  follow-up  confirmation  procedures.  This  includes  the  French  reports,  the  FOX 
vehicle  moving  into  Kuwait,  and  the  bunker  incident  after  Uie  war. 

As  with  the  alleged  CW  detections,  there  are  some  unsubstantiated  reports  that 
allege  exposure  to  BW  agents.  However,  despite  concerted  efforts,  Coalition  assets  were 
not  able  to  confirm  any  of  these  reports. 


118 


0.41.    Is  there  any  classified  or  unclassified  information  that  would  indicate  the 
discovery  of  any  chemical,  biological,  radiological  or  nuclear  warfare  related  materials  by 
U.S.  or  Coalition  forces  before,  during,  or  after  the  Persian  Gulf  War? 

A.41.    There  is  no  information,  classified  or  unclassified,  that  would  indicate  the 
discovery  of  any  chemical,  biological,  radiological  or  nuclear  warfare  related  materials  by 
the  IIS  or  Coalition  forces  before,  during  or  after  the  Persian  Gulf  War.  After  the  war, 
Iraq  declared  and  turned  over  nuclear,  biological,  and  chemical  (NBC)  related  material  to 
the  UN  inspection  teams.  None  of  the  material  which  Iraq  turned  over  to  the  UN  teams 
originated  within  the  KTO.  The  Departnient  is  not  aware  of  any  information  derived 
from  the  UN  inspections  that  supports  any  allegation  that  Iraqi  NBC  programs  are 
responsible  for  the  Gulf  War  Syndrome,  either  directly  or  indirectly.  See  classified 
package  for  additional  information. 


0.42.  In  February  1994.  the  Defense  Science  Advisory  Board  contacted  the  Banking 
Comnfuttee  and  asked  for  a  list  of  witnesses  to  what  may  have  been  direct  Iraqi  attacks.  A 
representative  list  of  at  least  one  person  from  each  event  noted  was  sent  to  the 
Department  of  Defense.  It  has  been  reported  back  to  mv  office  bv  a  number  of  those 
interviewed  bv  the  DoD  that  rather  than  ask  substantive  questions  about  the  events  and  to 
locate  other  witnesses,  high-ranking  military  officers  called  these  individuals  to  inform 
them  that  thev  were  mistaken  and  to  tell  them  that  Iraq  had  did  not  have  the  ability  to 
initiate  these  types  of  attacks  --  which,  of  course,  is  false. 

Under  whose  personal  direction  are  these  officers  operating  --  and  if  operating 
without  direction,  what  corrective  or  disciplinary  steps  will  DoD  take  to  ensure  that  in  the 
future.  Department  representatives  ask  for  information,  rather  than  try  to  convince  these 
veterans  that  they  didn't  see  what  they  reported? 

A.42.  In  suppc  rt  of  the  Defense  Science  Board  on  Gulf  War  Health  Effects  charter,  the 
Department  interviewed  several  Persian  Gulf  veterans,  including  witnesses  who  related 
their  Persian  Gulf  experiences  to  the  staff  members  for  the  Committee  on  Banking, 
Housing,  and  Urban  Affairs.  The  majority  of  the  individuals,  who  were  interviewed, 
expressed  their  appreciation  that  the  DoD  was  taking  an  interest  in  them  and  answering 
their  questions  concerning  Operation  Desert  Storm  chemical  and  biological  issues.  No 
disciplinary  action  is  planned. 


119 


0.43.  What  is  the  role  of  your  office  in  the  investigation  into  the  exposure  of  U.S.  forces 
to  chemical  and/or  biological  materials  during  Operation  Desert  Shield  and  Desert 
Storm? 

A.  43.  The  Office  of  the  Secretary  of  Defense  (Health  Affairs),  OASD(HA)  is 
responsible  for  all  Persian  Gulf  health-related  issues.  The  Office  of  the  Assistant  to  the 
Secretary  of  Defense  (Atomic  Energy),  OASTD(AE),  provided  administrative  support 
and  researched  material  for  the  Defense  Science  Board  Task  on  Gulf  War  Health  Effects. 
OATSD(AE)  has  also  reviewed  records,  collected  information  and  interviewed  personnel 
with  knowledge  of  chemicalA>iological  operations  related  to  the  Gulf  War  and  provided 
information  to  a  variety  of  individuals  and  agencies.  OATSD(AE)  is  assisting 
OASD(HA)  in  implementing  a  Desert  Storm  records  research  and  declassification  effort. 


0.44.  What  role,  if  any  did  the  Defense  Nuclear  Agency  plav  in  the  destruction  of 
hazardous  materials  during  or  after  the  Persian  Gulf  War? 

A.44.  DNA  did  not  have  a  role  in  the  destruction  of  hazardous  materials  during  or  after 
the  Persian  Gulf  War.  DNA  persotuiel  did  participate  in  identification  of  stocks  and  their 
location,  and  identification  of  nuclear  production  facilities. 


Follow  Up  (0.45).  Did  anv  personnel  from  the  Defense  Nuclear  Agencv  or  working 
under  the  direction  of  the  Defense  Nuclear  Agency  or  any  other  Department  of  Defense 
element  participate  in  the  destruction  of  chemical,  biological  or  nuclear  materials  before. 
during,  or  after  the  war.  If  so.  what  materials  were  destroved? 

A. 45.    No  DNA  personnel  or  anyone  working  under  the  direction  of  DNA  participated  in 
the  destruction  of  chemical,  biological  or  nuclear  nmterials  before,  d'jring  or  after  the 
war. 

In  June  1991,  a  Destruction  Advisory  Panel  was  established  to  assist  and  advise 
the  United  Nations  Special  Conrunission  (UNSCOM)  on  the  safe  destruction  of  Iraq's 
chemical  weapons.  The  multi-national  Chemical  Destruction  Group,  which  supports 
UNSCOM  missions,  oversees  the  chemical  warfare  munitions  destruction  in  Iraq. 
Members  of  the  U.S.  Army  Chemical  Material  Destruction  Agency  and  the  U.S.  Army 
Technical  Escort  Unit  have  provided  support  to  UNSCOM  in  this  munitions  destruction. 


120 

0.46.  What  is  the  role  of  the  Defense  Iniellipence  Agency  in  the  investigation  into  the 
exposure  of  U.S.  forces  to  chemical,  biological  or  radiological  materials  during  Operation 
Desert  Shield  and  Desert  Storm? 

A.46.    DIA's  role,  as  always,  has  been  to  provide  intelligence  to  the  Department  of 
Defense.  DIA  has  been  deeply  involved  with  the  investigation  into  alleged  exposure  of 
U.S.  forces  to  chemical,  biological  or  radiological  materials  during  Operation  Desert 
Shield  and  Desert  Storm  since  the  investigation  began  in  early  summer  1993.  DIA  has 
reviewed  every  aspect  of  its  assessment  of  Iraqi  chemical,  biological  and  nuclear 
weapons  programs,  the  possibility  of  their  use  against  Coalition  troops,  and  the 
possibiUty  of  accidental  release  from  bombed  Iraqi  targets.  DIA  has  spearheaded  the 
investigation  into  the  alleged  Czech  detections,  making  the  assessment  that  the  Czech 
detections  were  likely  valid  but  that  they  are  unable  to  confirm  the  detections.  DIA 
traveled  to  Saudi  Arabia,  Kuwait,  Israel.  Czech  Republic,  France  and  England  to  further 
investigate  the  issue.  Through  the  Defense  Attache  system,  DIA  requested  information 
and  assessments  regarding  the  issue  from  other  Coalition  members  and  allies.  To  date,  all 
of  DIAs  efforts  and  contacts  point  to  the  unanimous  conclusion  that  Coalition  troops 
were  not  exposed  to  chemical  or  biological  agents,  either  accidently  (as  a  result  of 
downwind  exposure  from  bombed  Iraqi  facilities)  or  purposely  (from  direct  Iraqi  use). 


Q.47.  Is  it  true  that  North  Korea  is  reported  to  possess  both  chemical  and 
biological  weapons  capabihtv? 

A.47.  Classified  response  received  from  the  Department  of  Defense  [deleted]. 
Response  archived  in  U.S.  Senate  Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Affairs 
files. 

Follovy  Up  (Q.48.):  There  has  been  much  discussion  of  the  possibility  that  the 
crisis  over  the  North  Korean  nuclear  weapons  program  could  develop  into  a 
major  war  involving  a  Desert  Storm-sized  force  on  the  Korean  Peninsula.   If 
such  a  conflict  were  to  occur,  are  you  concerned  that  the  North  Koreans  might 
use  chemical  and  biological  weapons  agadnst  U.S.  forces? 

A.48.  Classified  response  received  from  the  Department  of  Defense  [deleted]. 
Response  archived  in  U.S.  Senate  Committee  on  Banking,  Housing,  and  Affairs 
files. 


121 


Questions  from  Senator  D'Amato 


Follow  Up  (0.49'i.  What  steps  are  you  taking  to  ensure  that  the  medical  capabilities  of 
U.S.  forces  are  improved  so  that  they  could  deal  with  mass  casualty  events  involving 
chemical  and  biological  weapons?  Since  the  Korean  crisis  could  come  to  a  head  in  the 
very  near  future,  measures  that  will  take  more  than  a  year  to  be  effective  will  be  too  late 
to  do  any  good. 


A. 49.  The  Department  is  aggressively  pursuing  full  FDA  approval  and  licensure  of  all 
drugs  and  vaccines  used  as  prophylaxsis  or  treatment  against  chemical/biological  warfare 
agents  wherever  possible.  The  Department  is  assuring  that  training  in  the  prevention  and 
treatment  of  chenucal/bioiogical  warfare  casualties  is  a  priority  and  will  be  a  pan  of  the 
Department's  Medical  Readiness  Strategic  Plan. 


O.50.  Hvpotheticallv.  assume  that  the  thesis  of  the  report  that  is  being  issued  today  is 
correct,  that  U.S.  forces  in  Southwest  Asia  during  Desert  Storm  were  exposed  to  a 
mixture  of  chemical  and  biological  warfare  agents.  Isn't  it  strongly  in  the  Department's 
interest  to  understand  the  nature  and  effects  of  such  exposure,  in  orde^  to  protect  U.S. 
forces  better  in  the  future?  Why  has  the  Department  seemed  so  resistant  to  a  full, 
comprehensive  review  of  this  issue? 

A. 50.  Under  the  auspices  of  the  Office  of  the  Under  Secretary  of  Defense  for  Acquisition 
and  Technology,  a  Defense  Science  Board  Task  Force  on  Persian  Gulf  War  Health 
Effects  conducted  a  comprehensive  review  of  the  use  of  chemical  and  biological  weapons 
in  the  Gulf  War.  Their  report  was  published  June  1994  and  concluded,  "The  Task  Force 
found  no  evidence  that  either  chemical  or  biological  warfare  was  deployed  at  any  level 
against  us,  or  that  there  were  any  exposures  of  US  service  members  to  chemical  or 
biological  warfare  agents  in  Kuwait  or  Saudi  Arabia.  We  are  aware  of  one  soldier  who 
was  blistered,  plausibly  from  mustard  gas,  after  entering  a  bunker  in  Iraq  during  the  post- 
war period." 

The  suggestion  that  US  forces  were  exposed  to  a  mixtarc  of  chemical  and 
biological  warfare  agents  is,  indeed,  a  hypothetical  thesis.  The  illnesses  suffered  by  some 
of  our  veterans  at  this  time  are  not  hypothetical,  the  illnesses  are  real.  Time,  resources, 
and  effort  should  be  expended  towards  identifying  the  causative  factors  of  our  veterans' 
illnesses.  Scientific  evidence,  operational  analysis  and  common  sense  have  eliminated 
chemical  and  biological  warfare  agents  as  a  causative  factor  of  the  illnesses.  U.S.  forces 
can  best  be  protected  in  the  future  by  identifying  the  causes  of  the  Gulf  War  veterans' 
illnesses  and  identifying  methods  to  neutralize  and/or  eliminate  these  causative  factors. 


122 

0.5 1 .    There  are  extensive  published  reports  that  Saddam  Hussein  has  not  abandoned  his 
ambitions  to  conquer  Kuwait  and  make  it  the  "19th  Province  of  Iraq".  Indeed,  he  appears 
to  be  able  to  maintain  his  military  power  and  his  political  base  in  Iraq,  and  appears  to  be 
working  hard  to  undermine  both  the  sanctions  regime  against  him  and  the  United  Nations 
inspection  regime.  This  leads  me  to  conclude  that  we  may  again  face  Iraq  on  the 
battlefield.  Do  vou  agree  that  Iraq  remains  a  threat  to  Kuwait  and  Saudi  Arabia,  among 
others  in  the  Middle  East? 

A.Sl.  Yes,  the  Department  agrees  that  Iraq  remains  a  threat  to  Kuwait  and  Saudi  Arabia, 
among  others  in  the  Middle  East.  Iraq  is  still  reeling  from  its  thrashing  at  the  hands  of  the 
Coalition,  as  well  as  UN  inspections  and  sanctions.  However,  Iraq  remains  a  viable 
regional  force  which  no  Persian  Gulf  ally  could  defeat,  much  less  defend  against,  without 
US  assistance. 


Follow  Up  (0.52).  If  Iraq  remains  a  threat,  and  there  is  a  possibility  that  our  defense 
arrangements  with  our  Desert  Storm  allies  may  again  become  the  basis  for  direct  U.S. 
involvement  in  armed  conflict  with  Iraq,  doesn't  it  make  very  good  sense  to  press  ahead 
with  all  possible  speed  to  unravel  and  understand  the  causes  and  treatments  of  Persian 
Gulf  Syndrome?  Do  you  agree  that  this  is  not  merely  an  illness  affecting  veterans  of  the 
past  wars,  but  a  threat  to  U.S.  forces  who  may  be  engaged  in  a  future  war  against  the 
same  enemy  in  much  the  same  place. 

A. 52.    We  agree  that  we  must  proceed  with  our  efforts  to  uiu-avel  and  understand  the 
causes  and  treatments  of  these  illnesses. 


053.  Can  vou  assure  this  Committee  that  all  drugs  and  vaccines  used  on  U.S.  troops 
deployed  to  Southwest  Asia  had  successfully  completed  the  full  FDA  review  and 
approval  process? 

A. 53.    Two  drugs.  Pyridostigmine  and  Butulinum  toxoid,  were  used  under  an 
Investigational  New  Drug  (IND)  authorization  from  the  FDA.  With  the  exception  of 
Pyridostigmine  and  Botulinum  toxoid,  any  drug  or  vaccine  administered  to  U.S. 
personnel  would  have  been  fully  approved  and  licensed  by  the  FDA,  and  listed  within 
DOD  medical  formularies. 


Follow  Up  (O  54).  Please  list  all  drugs  and  vaccines  used  on  U.S.  troops  and  their  FDA 
approval  dates.  If  a  drug  or  Vaccine  did  not  receive  FDA  approval,  please  list  its  status  in 
the  approval  process  when  it  was  administered  to  U.S.  troops.  And,  its  status  today. 


123 


A. 54.  With  the  exception  of  Pyridostigmine  and  Botulinum  toxoid,  any  drug  or  vaccine 
administered  to  U.S  personnel  would  have  been  fully  approved  and  licensed  by  the  FDA, 
and  listed  within  DOD  medical  formularies.  Pyridostigmine  is  a  drug  approved  by  the 
FDA  since  1955  for  use  in  the  treatment  of  myasthenia  gravis  (MG),  a  neuromuscular 
disease.  Botulinum  toxoid  has  been  in  use  more  than  20  years,  and  has  been  sponsored 
by  the  Centers  for  Disease  Control  and  Prevention  (CDC)  for  important  public  health 
situations.  During  the  Gulf  War  both  drugs  were  considered  "investigational"  in 
accordance  with  FDA  regulations  and  used  only  after  careful  review  by  the  FDA  under 
the  auspices  of  a  treatment  protocol  against  biological  and  chemical  warfare  agents.  The 
Department  is  pursuing  action  to  have  both  drugs  licensed  and  approved  by  the  FDA  for 
their  intended  military  purpose.  Attachment  C  is  a  list  of  all  FDA  approved  drugs  that 
were  available  for  use  in  the  "Medical  Customer  Shopping  Guide  for  Saudi  Arabia"  and 
also  those  drugs  which  were  taken  to  the  field  by  medical  units  as  noted  in  the  "Defense 
Medical  Standardization  Board". 


0.55.  Did  the  development  process  for  the  medical  procedures  involving  these  drugs  and 
vaccines  fullv  take  into  account  possible  synergistic  reactions  with  other  chemical  and 
biological  warfare  agents? 

A. 55.  No,  not  fully.  The  synergistic  interaction  of  multiple  drugs,  vaccines,  chemicals, 
thermal  stressors  and  other  environmental  exposures  with  chemical  and  biological 
warfare  agents  is  not  a  well  defined  area  of  medical  knowledge.  As  a  result  of  the  Gulf 
War  experience,  the  Department  recognizes  the  need  to  increase  its  understanding  of  the 
physiologic  effects  of  preventive  measures  within  the  context  of  co-existing  exposures  to 
environmental  hazards  and  chemical  and  biological  threats. 

Follow  Up  fO.56).  What  level  of  risk  did  you  determine  was  acceptable  in  administering 
the  drugs  and  vaccines? 

A. 56.  Both  Pyridostigmine  and  Botulinum  toxoid  have  been  used  for  many  years  by  the 
medical  profession  without  any  evidence  of  adverse  long  term  health  effects.  DoD  and 
FDA  shared  the  opinion  that  the  risks  from  potential  exposure  to  Iraqi  biological  or 
chemical  warfare  agents  and  the  lack  of  any  alternative  therapy  was  significantly  greater 
than  any  risks  associated  with  the  administration  of  these  drugs  to  protect  U.S.  forces. 


124 


125 


'•■l'|'!''"!'!v.'i' "I'l^  i' 

Mr  - 


ftfi-«i'^A  O  -  95  -   5 


126 


An  Icproved  CSiaaiol  and  Biological 
Downwind  KazArd  Pradiction  Syatea 


Colooel  Joseph  P.  Phillip,  USA 

LieutenAnt  Colaa«l  Ben  Z.  Moberley,  DSA 

Captain  David  L.  Da  Vrias,  DSA 

Oefonse  Noclaar  Agmacj 

17  July  1991 

ABSISACT 

It  is  ctaential  that  coabat  commandari  have  elaar,  tiaely,  and 
definitive  information  and  advice  on  the  potential  effects  of  cheaical  and 
biological  (CB)  wespona  for  decisions  affecting  troop  safety  and  operational 
Bobility.  However,  current  prediction  aethods  generate  broad  outlines  of 
total  expected  areas  of  pocenti&l  hazards.  Even  where  autoaatcd  and  enhanced, 
because  of  necessary  allowances  for  statistical  variability  of  weather,  these 
aethods  show  hazard  areas  encoop&ssing  even  larger  portions  of  terrain  without 
any  better  appreciation  for  the  significance  of  the  true  hazard.  Capitalizing 
on  expertise  in  nuclear  effects  modeling,  the  Defense  Huclear  Agency  in 
January  1991  rapidly  conducted  wor)c  to  provide  an  isproved  CS  downwind  hazard 
prediction  systea  for  Operation  Desert  Stora. 

The  project  was  undertaken  in  direct  response  to  concerns  over  the  CB 
warfare  threat  in  the  Persian  Gulf  conflict.  The  Brsttm,   called  ANBACIS  XI 
for  beneficial  association  with  the  Aroy's  Automated  Nuclear,  Biological  And 
Cheaical  Information  Systea,  provides  for  greater  definition  of  potential 
hazard  areas  by  drawing  aap  overlay  contours  of  different  dosage  intensity 
according  to  specific,  detailed  weapons  Intelligvnc*  inforaation.  AHBAdS  ZI  . 
paclcages  detailed  weapons  effects  models  together  vitb  real-tiae  veather  input 
and  digital  raster  aaps;  all  within  a  user  fri«ndly<  iataractive  graphical 
interface.  The  result  is  dramatic  visualization  capability  coupled  with 
substantial  coaputer  power,  nie  benefit  to  the  eoobat  rrwiiander  Is  a  aore 
discrete  prediction  of  the  probable  aztant  of  aarloui  coQtaalaatloa  froa  cloud 
travel,  greatly  enhancing  the  understanding  of  < apart  on  alasloa         .  .. 
accooplishaent .  (See  Output  Coaparlson,  Figure  1). 

The  concept  for  the  A.SEACIS  ZI  aystea  was  developed  and  coordinated  in  -- 
Noveaber  and  Oeceaber,  1990.  Kork  effectively  started  th«  first  of  January, 
■  1991-and  was  co&pleted  within  45  days.  Xbe  systaa  becaae  fully -oparatlonai  on 


30  January  and  served  the  United  States  Central  Coaaind  iCBXTCCM)   throuohout- 
Desert  Store.  As  finally  configured,  strike  and  azarciae  raptt^  froa  field 
conainds  were  telephoned  into  t.^e  Defense  !luclaar  Agency's  Operations  Canter. 
There,  systea  operators  used  t.^e  interactive  AHBAdS  II  systaa  to  access  a—  - 
pre-coaputed  database  of  over  11,OCO  contour  "footprints"  for  various  weapons, 
agents,  and  weather  conditions.  The  aystea  and  Its  operators  were  challenged 
by  over  600  test  exercise  ard  strike  aeasage  requests  called  into  the 
Continental  United  States  (COKUS)  operations  canter  froa  O.S.  forces  elaacnta 
within  the  Kuwaiti  Theater  of  Operations.  Xasponses  %ferc  provided  within  10 
Binutes  by  facsimile  transaission  over  secure  telephone  lines .  The  replies, 
in  the  fors  cf  asp  contour  overlays  of  different  cheaical  and  biological 
dosage  li=:t5  rC  sicr.if ;c:.r.Ci,  illowed  for  Ecenaris  ar.elysis  arji  better  advice 
to  cszr^r.zezz- . 

UtBfiCZS   II  shows  great  crosise  as  a  sodular  iaproveaent  to  autoaated  NBC 
warning  and  reporting  sysceos.  Additionally,  the  graphical  interface  proves 


127 

that  coaaon  handling  and  display  of  various  affects  basa  modals  ia  poaalbla, 
not  only  in  warfare  but  alao  in  evaporation  aodels  for  accidents  and  apilla. 
Kapid  development  and  iaprovement  in  weather  and  terrain  accoaaodation  are 
also  posaible,  to  include  three  dimensional  resolution.  The  software  ia 
readily  adaptable  to  coaaon  user  type  equipaent  and  saall,  notebook-size 
coaaercial  personal  computer  platforms.   In  synergy  with  detection  capability, 
ANBACIS  II  la  •  significant  advance  la  contasination  avoidance  capability, 
thereby  proaotlng  success  on  the  contaalnated  battlefield. 

1.    ZmiOOOCTZOR 

1.1  Purpoae 

The  Automated  Nuclear,  Biological  and  CSieaical  ZnforBation  Syatea  XZ  (ANBACIS 
II)  was  developed  to  provide  a  «ore  realistic,  real-tine  chemical  and 
biological  (CB)  downwind  hazard  prediction  capability  for  Onlted  States  and 
coalition  forces  to  aval\:ate  potential  hazards  to  forces  and  availability  of 
terrain  for  maneuver.   The  effort  focused  on  improving  the  existing  Alliad 
Technical  Publication  No.  45  (ATP-45)  system  which  provides  a  very  large, 
safe-sided  hazard  area  estimate  containing  more  than  99%  of  cheaical  and/or 
biological  agents.  The  final  user  products  are  prediction  contour  plots  that 
are  of  tactical  significance.   (See  Output  Comparison,  figure  1) 

1.2  Current  Service  Capabilities 

Throughout  the  services,  there  Is  United  capability  for  CB  hazard  prediction. 
The  doctrinal  standard.  Vol  II,  ATF-45,  allows  for  changing  wind  directions, 
but  this  only  eakes  a  larger,  mora  conservative  fan.  It  also  is  not  an 
automated  process.  Tlie  Air  force  continues  to  rely  on  existing  aanual  aethod 
of  ATP-45. 

The  Any  ANBACIS  I  systea  autoaates  AT7-45  od  DOS  personal  cooputers. 
It  provides  significantly  faster  computations,  but  still  gives  a  large  fan  and 
has  Halted  biological  capability.  The  Cbeaical  Kesearch,  Oevelopaant  and 
Bigineering  Center  (CROZC)  developed  the  basic  defensive  resear^  iieapons 
aodels  (called  NUSSE-4  and  FARACOKFT)  which  have  been  incorporated  into 
ANBACIS  II. 

The  U.S.  Marines  acquired  a  handheld  ZZNBC  lystea  recently  developed  by 
the  Onlted  Kingdoa.  It  also  automates  ATT-45  and  is  ruggedized  and  iwrtsble 
but  provides  less  capability  than  ANBACIS  I.  It  has  no  biological  hazard 
prediction  capability.  

Tfae-OrST-Navy  developed  .VLSTRACK  for  chealcal  hazard. prediction.  Zt  has_ 

a  siailar  capability  as  the  basic  wespons  aodels  Incorporated  into -ANBACIS.  II 
but  is  able  to  use  varying  winds.  It  was  not  fully  developed  sor  evaluated 
before  Desert  Storm.  The  Naval  Surface  Narfare  Center  (NSWC)  developed  a 
biological  "Plume"  model  which  provides  more  intuitive,  realistic  looking-  - 
plota  using  varying  weather  conditions.  Pluae  is  now  incorporated  into 
ANBACIS  II. 

2.    BACKQIOUNZ) 

2.1   Concept  Initiation 

During  the  buildup  of  Operation  Desert  Shield,  there  was  great  concern  over 
the  CE  warfare  threat  in  the  Persian  Gulf.  In  Novecber  1990,  the  Director  of 
DNA,  Ha^or  General  Gerald  C.  Watson,  viewed  a  computer  visualization 
demonstration  of  a  three  dimensional  transport  and  diffusion  model 
incorporating  local  wind  and  terrain  data.  Prom  this,  he  conceived  the  idea 


128 

of  Including  such  a  oodel  in  the  Any  ANBACIS  program  which  was  already 
deployed  to  Aray  cooimands  in  Saudi  Axabia.  Ha  than  foraed  a  teas  of  chemical 
experts  to  review  and  survey  existing  models  that  could  be  used  to  develop  an 
improved  CB  hazard  prediction  visualization  product  for  COrzcoH   comaanders. 

2.2  Model  Evaluation 

At  the  time,  there  were  no  operational  models  svallable  which  incorporated 
both  weather  and  terrain  data.  Several  research  and  developoent  models  were 
reviewed  for  feasibility  and  operational  tisa.  The  team  evaluated  a  model  by 
the  U.S.  Army  Atmospheric  Sciences  Laboratories  (ASL)  which  incorporated 
weather  and  terrain  Inputs  but  was  not  sufficiently  developed  for  iBaedlste 
y    operational  use.  The  United  States  Army  Huclear  and  CSieaical  Agency  (USANCA)- 
v^    funded  Los  Alamos  National  Laboratory  (LANL)  model  -  HOTMAC/RAPTAO  -  was  also 
/reviewed  but  it  was  not  able  to  handle  bursting  munition  data.  Therefore,  the 

•  ,  team  initially  settled  on  using  NUSSE-4/PARACOKPT  for  chaalcsl  prediction  and 

•  GAPCAP/VAMTZCAF  for  biological.  Tbese  models,  developed  by  CRDEC  for  single 
and  multiple  munitions  scenarios  respectively,  contain  essential  munitions 
data  but  only  basic  single  vector  winds  for  weather  input. 

2.3  Justification  for  ONA  Lead 

DNA's  past  work  on  nuclear,  dust  and  smoke  transport  modeling  provided  the 
necessary  technical  and  eieperience  base  to  develop  and  integrate  such  an 
ambitious  project.  DNA  also  supported  the  Army's  development  of  the  ANBACIS  I 
program  which  automated  the  safe-sided  prediction  of  ATP-45.  Beeatise  of  its 
mission,  DNA  also  had  a  core  of  chemical  officers  already  assigned  who  became 
the  nucleus  of  the  modeling  and  validation. 

2.4  Coordination 

Coordination  in  initiating  the  project  and  to  kacp  it  on  track  was 
constant  and  very  thorough.  Technical  experts  from  within  OKK  initially 
visited  the  U.S.  Army  Chemical  School,  Ft  MeClellan.  AL  and  ASL  «t  Mhlt*  Sands  . 
Missile  Range,  MM.  As  the  initial  concept  came  to  life,  scvaral  dlaeusclons 
pertaining  to  modeling,  and  its  various  factors,  war*  dlBCUSSod  with  ASL,  LAML 
and  CIU>EC.  The  operational  concept  was  coordinated  with  Offices  of  the 
Secretory  of  Defense  (OSD),  Joint  Staff,  Department  of  the  Arav  Deputy  Chief 
of  Staff  for  Operations  (DCSOPS),  the  Defense  and  Central  Zateillgenoe 
Agencies,  CROEC,  the  U.S.  Arsy  Chemical  School,  and  CBtTOON. 

2.5  Schedule 

From  the  onset  and  throughout  the  active  project,  a  schedule  was  developed  and 
continually  modified  according  tc  the  circumstances.  As_work_transpired£the 
actual  acconplishments  were:  ~  "; — 

Zta  Git* 

Initiated  Project  1  November  1990 

Concept  Briefings  November  1990  -  January  1991 

Support  Contract  Awarded  24  December  1990 

Concept  Message  (J-3  CZNTCOM)  28  '*«~->^'-  1990 

System  runctional  11  January  1991 

Install  EcJipaent  in  Theater  22  -  30  January  1991 

System  Operational  30  Jantiary  1991 


129 

24  Hour  Operations  Stopped  4  March  1991 

Operations  Terminated  '1  March  1991 

3.    ACnORS  PRKEDIHC  COWFLICT  (Desert  Shield) 
3.1   Project  Teas 

AS  the  v«rious  input  Bodels  were  being  gathered  and  asslinilated,  Applied 
computing  SyBtemsT  Inc.  was  contracted  to  Integrate  the  models  into  an 
operational  system  and  provide  for  an  enhanced  visual  output.  Selected 
oereonnel  from  Other  government  and  contractor  organirations  (Air  force 
SvstMrcommand,  LANl;  CRDEC,  SAIC,  MITRZ,  JAYCOR)  were  also  brought  in  to 
firther  develop,  evaluate,  and  operate  the  worJcing  models.  A  representative 
from  Air  Force  Global  Heather  Center  (ATCWC)  also  joined  the  project  and 
assisted  in  establishing  on-line  *#eather  support  and  an  operational  weather 
analysis  cell.  He  Installed  the  Automated  Weather  Network  (AWN)  in  the  DMA 
Operations  Center  which  provided  the  hotirly  surface  weather  observations  used 
tocontinually  update  weather  forecasts  for  the  Kuwaiti  Theater  of  Operations. 
The  ATCWC  also  provided  three  military  weather  forecasters  which  gave  a  round- 
the-clock  weather  analysis  capability. 

v^3.2   Model  Selection 

«ie  CRDTC-developed  mJSSE-4  and  PARACOMPT  models  were  selected  for  chemical 
predictions  and  the  CAPCAP  and  VAMTICAP  models  were  initially  used  for 
biological  predictions.  A  limitation  of  these  models  was  that  they  only 
accepted  single  vector  winds  in  their  calculations.  This  was  not  considered  a 
serious  deficiency  for  the  chemical  predictions  since  the  significant  level  of 
contamination  from  haxardous  clouds  usually  lasted  only  1  to  3  hours  and 
traveled  only  a  relatively  few  tens  of  kilometers  downwind.  The  larg*  numbers 
of  fielded  chemical  detectors  able  to  alarm  on  actual  contamination  offset 
micro-climate  capabilities.  Biological  agents,  however,  could  drift  downwind 
e  to  12  hours  and  possibly  extend  several  hundred  kilometers  irtiile  still 
ytemaining  virulent,  for  this  reason,  the  NSKC  biological  Plume  aodel,  which 
\/  accounted  for  varying  meteorological  conditions  (wind  speed,  direction,  and 
stability  category)  and  varying  biological  decay  rates  (in  the  night/day 
transition),  was  finally  selected  to  be  the  primary  biological  prediction 
model. 

The  NUSSE-4  and  Plume  models  were  written  in  a  combination  of  fORTRAR 
and  C  programming  language,  for  \ise-ln-a-Unlx  operating  environmestj  These 
models  did  not  have  user  friendly  input  interfaces  nor  operating  routines.-  -- 
Consequently,  operstors  made  numerous  errors  and  spent  much  time  entering  data 
and  calculating  responses  to  messsge  reports  because  lengthy  path  and  file 
names  were  required.  To  correct  this,  ACS  developed  a  user  friendly,,  menu.  _  ; 
driven  interface  so  anyone  with  minimal  training  co\ild  perform  special 
chemical  or  biological  calculations.  This  interface  proved  invaluable  and 
allowed  for  continued  use  of  these  models  by  non-modeling  or  computer  experts. 

3.3   Operation  and  Methodology 

The  Sun  SPARC  2  workstation  was  the  primary  operational  platform  used  to  do 
the  hazar:!  predictions.  As  fast  as  this  computer  is,  it  still  often  took  15- 
20  minutes  to  perform  some  calculations  and  was  not  sufficient  to  meet  the 
operational  turn  around  time  goal  of  10  minutes  (from  receipt  of  a  strike 
report  from  the  field  to  faxing  back  a  contour  prediction  plot).  This 


130 

prompted  •  deciclon  to  crcat*  a  database  of  pre-computad  chealcal  footprints 
based  on  sucpectad  Iraqi  sunitions  and  agents  and  various  preselected 
oeteoroiogical  conditions.   The  ANBACIS  II  systeo  has  the  capability  to 
interact  directly  with  supporting  technical  Bodels  for  special  computations, 
or  to  access  a  precoaputed  chemical  database  in  normal  use.   (See  the  System 
Design,  Figure  2)  To  help  create  the  database  rapidly,  modelers  and  operators 
ran  the  various  prediction  probleos  reaotely  on  the  DNA  Cray  computer  located 
at  LANL.   In  the  end,  nore  than  11,000  pre-cooputed  footprints  were 
established  for  the  database.'  At  one  tine,  four  Cray  computers  were  linked 
together  to  perform  spray  tystea  calculations  qxilckly.  While  the  Crays  were 
neccMary,  the  reason  was  solely  to  accospllsb  a  large  volume  of  calculations 
in  a  short  tlae.  Kith  a  lass  atrcMful  schedule,  lesser  platfoma  can 
adequately  perfora  all  neccssarr  calculations.  On  the  workstations, 
biological  footprints  reoaln  processed  on  subordinate  windows  using 
interactive  screens  which  drive  the  aodel  and  allow  input  of  forecast  and 
changes  in  weather  data.  The  Pluae  andel  within  AMBACIS  II  runs  quickly  (only 
about  5  more  ainutes  for  a  IS  ainute  turn  arotmd  time).  Biological  requests 
can  be  updated  with  weather  changes  until  actual  weather  reports  signify  s 
cofflpleted  pattern.   (See  Exaeples  of  Znput  Screen  and  Overlay  Output,  Figure 
3) 

3.4   Product  for  the  Field 

The  team  also  decided  that  rather  than  deploy  computer  equipment  to  CENTCOM 
for  a  centralized  in-theater  hazard  prediction  focal  point,  it  would  be  less 
burdensome  and  more  efficient  to  have  all  the  calculations  and  analyses 
performed  in  the  United  States.  To  get  the  necessary  information  back  and 
forth  quickly  (strike  reports  from  CZHTCOM  units  and  haxard  prediction  plots 
returned  to  CENTCOM) ,  the  Director,  DNA  offered  to  provide  and  install 
classified  facsimile  machines  and  STU-ZZZ  secure  telephones.  Zn  all,  21  sets 
of  equipment  were  deployed  according  to  a  CQRCOM  distribution  plan.  There 
were  several  factors  Influencing  the  numbers  of  systems  -  overall  cost  and 
ayailabillty  as  well  as  the  number  of  reasonable  comasnd  nodes  requiring 
assistance,  yet  able  to  collate  and  manage  the  NBC  Naming  and  Reporting 
System  (MBCHRS). 

4.    ACTIONS  DORZNG  COHFLICT  (Oasert  Stoim:  Air  t  Ground  Campaign) 

4.1   Deployment  and  System  Operation 

Shortly  after  the  air  war  of  Desert  Storm  began,  DNA  sent  four  officers  to 
Saudi  Arabia  with  secure  facsimile  machines  and  STU-IZI  telephones.  The 
equipment  was  Installed  at  IS  locations  as  directed  by  CENTCOM.  By  30 
January,  all  the  equipment  was  in  place,  many  pre-cooputed  footprints  were 
already  developed,  and  the  operating  craws  Jiera  trained..  The  DNA_^eratlona^_ 
Center  became  fully  operational  en  a  24  hour  basis.  Three  shifts,  each  with 
an  operations  call  (military  personnel  from  within  ONA),  a  modeling  cell,  and 
a  weather  cell  conducted  round-the-clock  operations. 

The  modeling  cell  consisted  of  computer  snd  chemical  experts  from  LUil, 
SAIC,  MITRZ,  and  JATCOR.  This  cell,  via  a  hl^ispeed  computer  network  link  to 
the  0NA  Cray  computer  at  LANL,  created  the  footprint  database  and  ran  special 
calculations  as  requested  by  CZNTCOM  units.  The  Central  Intelligence  Agency 
(CZA)  also  used  the  ANBACIS  ZI  products  for  their  own  aitalysis.  Once 
completed,  all  footprints  a..d  other  calculation  results  were  stored  on  a  local 
computer  at  ONA.  This  information  was  then  available  for  all  operators  to  use 
as  an  immediate  response  to  a  chemical  or  biological  strike  or  test  exercise 
report. 

The  weather  cell  consisted  of  trained  military  weather  analysts  and 
forecasters  from  the  V.S.   Air  rorce  Air  Heather  Service.  Normally,  one  non- 


131 

coaaissioned  officer  was  assigned  to  a  particular  shift.   He  was  responsible 
for  validating  the  significant  weather  entries  on  the  NBC-2  reports  or 
predicting  weather  forecasts  for  special  exercise  aissions. 

4.2   Scheme  of  Operations 

The  general  scheme  of  operations  was: 

1)  Units  would  telephone  in  NBC-2  reports  to  the  Operations  Center.  The 
NBC-2  report  would  be  completed  lAW  standard  doctrine;  each  report  would 
have  a  unique  strike  serial  nuober  and  the  local  weather  data. 

2)  Concurrent  with  a  weather  check,  one  of  the  coaputer  operators  would 
input  the  KBC-2  report  data  into  the  Sun  workstation  and  call  up  the 
correct  pre-computed  footprint.  He  would  than  scale  It  to  the  user 
re<7uested  map  scale  and  print  it. 

3)  The  printed  hazard  prediction,  containing  remarks  blocks  with  the 
original  NBC-2  report  and  essential  text  data  supporting  the  contour 
plots,  was  reviewed  for  accuracy  by  the  Qieaical  and  Shift  Offlcer-in- 
Chargc. 

4)  Once  approved,  the  Coaaunications  Officer  dispatched  the  prediction 
plot  to  the  originating  unit  via  secure  facsiaile. 

All  of  this  was  accomplished  within  10  minutes.  To  allow  for  receipt  of 
multiple  strike  reports  from  different  units  at  the  saae  time,  six  coaputer 
operators  were  always  available  to  conduct  slaultaneous ,  aulti-tasking 
calculatioiis  froa  any  of  the  six  networked  workstatioiis  if  necessary. 

4.3   System  Usage 

(then  Desert  Stora  first  began,  a  series  of  bunker  problems  were  calculated  to 
estimate  the  effects  of  coalition  bombing  of  suspected  CB  production  and 
storage  facilities  in  Iraq.  Heapoiis  storage  quantities  were  based  on 
estimates  provided  by  personnel  froa  the  United  States  Army  Armament  Munitions 
and  Chemical  Coaaand  (AMCCOM) .  The  resultant  downwind  hazard  prediction  plots 
were  provided  to  Joint  and  Service  staffs  and  to  the  National  Military  Cotmiisnd 
Center  (NMCC)  to  assist  in  overall  battle  damage  assessment.   Special 
calculations  were  conducted  at  the  request  of  several  agencies.  These 
included  assessing  potential  hazards  resulting  froa  intercepts  of  Scud 
missiles  and  the  extent  of  effects  of  possible  chemical  or  biological  attacks 
on  population  centers. 

An  important  part  of  the  ANBACZS  ZI  system  was  the  integration  of 
Defense  Happing  Agency  (DMA)  ARC  Digitized  Raster  Graphics  (ADRG)  maps  on 
compact  disc  rcad-only-meaory  (CD-ROM)  optical  disks.  DMA  provided  CD-ROM 
maps  in  scales -of  1:250,000, -1:900, X>O0_U1,000,Ji0Q^aad_Lr2, 000, 000  for  each  - 
area  of  interest  in  a  most  timely  manner.  Since  CD-ROM  maps  were  not 
available  in  1:50,000  scale,  DMA  provided  paper  aaps  for  those  areas 
surrounding  the  major  CZNTCOM  air  bases  of  interests.  These  were  then 
digitally  scanned  at  DNA,  logically  linked  together  and  added  to  the  map 
database  on  the  systea  server.  All  hazard  prediction  plots  could  then  be 
printed  (in  black  and  white  or  in  color)  with  a  aap  background  if  requested. 
Usually,  the  map  background  was  not  provided  because  of  the  additional  time  in 
printing  the  coaplete  aap  and  plot,  and  in  transmitting  that  detail  of 
information  over  a  2400  bits  per  second,  analog  voice  circuit  with  the 
facsimile.  Hap  backgrounds  were  routinely  provided  in  CONUS  when  the  plots 
were  to  be  presented  during  coanand  and  staff  briefings.  Overlay  plots  were 
routinely  sent  for  CT2TTC0K   for  posting  on  operations  maps. 

4.4   Coordination  and  Briefings 

Continuous  coordination  was  made  with  the  Aray  Cheaical  School,  CRDZC,  Surgeon 


132 

C«n«ral'a  Office  <for  a9ent  toxicolo^ical  data),  and  nuaeroua  Intalllgence 
aganciaa  to  refine  the  weapons  and  cheaical/bioloqical  agant  databaaa  to 
ensure  that  the  footprints  produced  would  be  according  to  the  bast.  Boat  . 
accurate  data  available.  At  one  point,  whan  new  and  additional  weapons  and 
fuzing  information  was  received,  an  entirely  new  footprint  database  was 
generated  and  each  entry  was  Individually  validated. 

Throughout  the  operation,  nuaeroua  briefings  and  deaonstntioas  were 
given  to  high  level  officials  to  acquaint  thea  with  this  new,  significant 
contrltetion  to  the  war  effort  and  need  for  continued  work. 

NMle  there  were  no  actual  chemical  or  biological  atrikes  during  the 
war,  contlnxious  exercise  strikes  were  generated  to  ensure  that  CZNTCOK  units 
and  DNA  operations  personnel  reaained  proficient.  Za  all,  aore  than  €00  plots 
were  calculated  and  dispatched  to  units  in  Saudi  Arabia.  Tbe  Axsy  Oivisioo 
and  Corps  NBC  staffs  requested  nuaerous.  specific  plots  so  they  could  perfora 
vulnerability  analysis  to  visually  show  coaaanders  the  results  of  potential 
eneay  CB  attacks.  These  plots  were  used  in  daily  briefings  as  Coaaanders 
planned  their  defensive  and  offensive  operations.  A  tabular  B\iBaar7  is 
Included  in  figure  4. 

5.  ACTIONS  ATTBl  CUNFLZCT 

Since  the  cessation  of  conflict,  the  aajority  of  the  effort  has  centered 
on  cleaning  up  the  software  code,  writing  the  docuaentatlon,  and  developing  a 
transition  plan  to  ensure  that  this  landaark  contribution  is  properly  carried 
forth  for  continued  developacnt  by  the  Services. 

Several  briefings  and  deaonstrations  have  also  been  conducted  to  create 
a  greater  understanding  and  awareness  of  the  enhincerf  aad  iaproved  hazard 
prediction  capabilities  that  are  possible  aow.  As  a  rasult  of  deaonstratlog 
the  systea  at  the  various  coofereaces,  there  has  been  a  graat  deaaad  for  a  DOS 
version  of  a  database  of  pre-coaputed  footprints.  Ttiis  cspability  has  been 
developed  using  a  notebook  size  PC.  An  effort  is  oademay  to  deaoostrate  a 
full  systea  capability  on  either  a  coaaon  user  er  other  cooBMrcial  platforu. 
ANBACZS  ZI  fulfilled  an  iaaediate  requireaeat  for  «a  iaproved  pradictioa 
capability,  better  training  tools,  iaproved  advice  to  cnmaenders  aad  systea 
adaptability  to  saaller  coaputers.  figure  5  details  future  systea 
enhaaceaents  and  goals. 

6.  Z,ESSOeiS  LEAMtZS 

Iaproved  prediction  capabilities  are  available  now  with  existing 
technology;  aore  is  needed  to  aake  the  systea  faster,  aore  accurate,  aad  aore 
tuer  frieaodly. .   . -__    _^_ ■__. ^ 

As  aodels  are  enhanced  to  allow  for  changing  aeteorologieal  conditions, 
tiaely  and  accurate  weather  iaforaatioo  becoaai  critical.  Autoaatlc  infusion 
of  weather  data,  such  as  froa  the  Arsy's  lategrated  Meteorological  Systea 
(IKETS),  is  needed  to  drive  the  aodels.  Coabiaatioos  of  weather  sensors  and 
reporting  stations  proliferated  throughout  the  area  of  operation,  or  by 
satellite  with  lookdown  capability  for  aicro-aeteorologieal  eooditioos,  will 
provide  real-tlae  data  feed  for  systems  such  as  AMBAdS  ZZ. 

Sufficient  intelligence  data  aust  be  aade  aore  available.  A  coaaon, 
standardized  dztabase  of  threat  weapons,  agents,  fill  weights  and  other  weapon 
paraaeters,  as  well  as  weather  paraaetric  data,  is  required  to  establish 
footprints  fcr  various  recional  threat  sceneries. 

Connercial  coomunications  systems  proved  adequate  and  practical  for  this 
particular  situation  for  training  and  wargaaing.  Large  scale  use  of  CB  would 


133 

hava  ov«rlo«d*d  th«  ability  to  report  or  raapond  isaadiataly.  Tbmf   la  an 
uryent  nocd  either  to  conatruct  data  diatributlon  ayatasa  that  apan  both 
atratagxc  and  tactical  cosaunicatlona  natworka  and  ia  capabla  of  tranaaittlng 
larga  aaounta  of  data  (Iffiagec,  filea  or  pac^ta),  or  to  downaisa  and 
dlatributa  a  diract  ANBACIS  II  ayatea  capability  within  unlta. 

Thar*  haa  baan  no  centralized  DoD  level  focua  on  aodel  developsent  or 
NBC  battlefield  autoaation  techniquea.  Each  aarvice  haa  aatabllahed  their  own 
separate  sethoda  of  perforaing  hazard  calculationa  and  tranaalttln?  NBC 
reporta.  In  a  Joint  Taak  rorce  Operation,  auch  aa  Operation  Dcaart  Stors  and 
aa  will  alwaya  be  in  future  confllcta,  all  ahould  be  operating  froa  a 
standardized  aystes.  A  OoO  level  agency  shoxild  be  dealgnated  to  enaure  a 
standardized  capability  Is  established. 

7.    BXCOHKSOiATIOHS 

The  ANBACIS  II  effort  proved  the  utility  of  a  coaaon,  user  friendly  Interface 
for  aany  purposes.  Developaant  ahould  continue  with  syataa  tranaition  aa  a 
joint  Service  project.  Specifically,  davelopoent  should; 

1.  provide  for  a  DOO  level  focus  for  NBC  battlefield  autooiation. 

2.  aatablish  a  DoO  standardized  NBC  hazard  prediction  sodal  interface 
incorporating  autoaated  real-tiae  weather  and  digital  terrain  data  on  cosunon 
user  equipaent. 

3.  add  a  nuclear  fallout  and  saoke  assessaent  aystaa  and 
accident/incidcnt/environaantal  aodules  to  sake  iaprovcd  downwind  hazard 
prediction  aystaoa  for  all  nuclear,  biological,  cfaaaieal,  and  othar  hasaxdoua 
■ateriala  aituations.     ^  /i>r/4*<./;?ipi>.i> 

4.  incorporate  ANBACIS  ZI  into  the  D.S.  ANBACZS  and  NATO  ATP-45  as  an 

iaprovaacnt  to  the  current  NBC-3  report. 

5.  downsize  and  proliferate  ANBACZS  ZI  softwar*  to  operate  on  cooBon 
user  platforma. 

6.  aasign  developaent  and  operations  centers  to  build  and  use  general 
and  theater  specific  databaaea  of  footprints. 

7.  create  unclaaaified  databaaea  for  use  in  classrooa  training  and 
field  exerciae- situations. 

e.  aaintain  a  network  for  exchange  of  data  and  to  conduct  regular  teat 

•JMreises. aaong  all  elaaenta.   -  .  .  . _ __; ■  -  ■- 


134 


ARMYTM3-6665-312-12&P  ■ 
AIR  FORCE  TO  11H2-1 7-1   | 


Table  2-1.    Preventive  Maintenance  Checks  and  Services 
B  -  Before  Operation 0  -  During  Operation 


Item 
No. 


Interval 
8      0 


Hem  to  be  Inspected/Procedure 


Equipment  is  Not 
Ready/Available  H: 


M43A1  DETECTOR 


Operational  Check. 

NOTE 

jif  alarm  sounds  when  battery  is  J 

/  connected,  allow  the  alarm  to  sound  I 
I  at  least  five  times.  Then  press  BAT-  I 
I  TERY  TEST  AND  RESET  PRESS  I 
I  button.  The  above  procedure  may  / 
I    have  to  be  repeated  several  times^    J 


Press  and  hold  BAHERY  TEST  AND  RESET 
PRESS  button  (23).  Read  detector 
meter  (24).  Detector  meter  should  read  in  black 
band.  Release  BAHERY  TEST  AND  RESET 
PRESS  button. 


Detector  meter  does  not 
read  in  black  band. 


Chann«? 


9.19 


135 


Table  2-1.    Preventive  Maintenance  Checks  and  Services 
B  •  Before  Operation 0- During  Operation 


nam 
No. 


Interval 
B      0 


Item  to  be  Inspected/Procedure 


Equipment  is  Not 
Ready/Available  it: 


I  M43A1  DETECTOR 


Operational  Check. 

Press  and  release  BAHERY  TEST  AND 

E:SET  PRESS  button  (23).  Within  2  .~1 
inutes  alarm  should  sound.  — 1 

NOTE 


1?  alarm  does  not  sound  within      7 
2  minutes  repeat  test  once  more    / 
with  a  new  test  paddle.  Discard    j 
old.  test  paddle.  i 


Detector  does  not/ 
alarm  within  two  / 
minutes.         I 


2-25 


136 


AIR  FORCE  TO  tlH2-1M     | 


f  MO^QggaATING  PROCEDURES.  I 
bt^  Fixed  Emplacen^nt. 

(1)    M43A1  Deteclof  and  BA3517/U  Batlery. 


NOTE 

Notify  personnel  within  audible  range  that  an  alann  may  sound.  If  alarm  sounds  when  power  is 
connected,  allow  the  alarm  to  sound  at  least  five  times.  Then  press  BATTERY  TEST  AND  RESET  PRESS 
bunon.  The  above  procedure  may  have  to  be  repeated  several  times. 


(d)  Connect  bat'.ery  cable  (5)  into  24  VOC  INPUT  on  detector. 

(e)  Press  BAHERY  TEST  &  RESET  PRESS  button  (6).  Detector  meter  (7)  indicates  batlery 
voltage  and  should  be  in  black  band  (8).  Release. 

(f)  Observe  meter  (!)  until  needle  returns  to  green  band  (9). 

NOTE 

If  detector  has  not  bc«n  in  tat  lor  a  long  time,  it  may  take  15  minutes  lor  meter 
to  reach  green  band. 

Your  equipment  is  now  operating. 


Change2 


2-71 


137 

Section  IV.    OPERATION  UNDER  UNUSUAL  CONDITIONS 


2-13    OPERATION  UNDER  UNUSUAL  OR  SEVERE  CONDITIONS. 


This  section  tells  you  how  to  use  the  detector  under  unusual  or  severe  operating  conditions.  Unusual 
operating  conditions  are: 

a.  Operational  Alert. 

b.  Air  temperature  below  20''F  (-7'C). 

c.  Blowing  dust  or  sand. 

d.  Rain,  sleet,  or  snow. 

e.  Fording. 

f.  Emergency  operation  with  broken  controls  or  indicators. 

;  2-14    OPERATIONAL  ALERf~ 


NOTE 
The  M43A1  Detector  will  sound  the  alarm  when  heavy  concentrations  of  rocket 
propeilant  smoke,  screening  smoke,  signaling  smoke,  or  engine  exhaust  ire 
present  or  when  a  nuclear  explosion  occurs. 

a.  When  the  alarm  system  signals  that  chemical  agents  are  present,  perform  steps  (b)  through  (k) 
below. 

b.  Immediately  take  the  protective  measures  described  In  FM  3-100. 

c.  Give  local  alert  according  to  local  Standard  Operating  Procedures  (SOP). 


2-109 


138 


I M  o-oooa-d  «•  i£«r 


•16    OPERATION  IN  BLOWING  SAND 


l/f-16    OPERATION 
lfWM43Alilst 


tactor  is  to  Im  us 


sand  or  dust  the  air  filter  must  be  replaced  at  mori 


frequent  intervals  than  normal.  Refer  to  table  2-2. 

Table  2-2.    Air  HIter  Replacement  Interval 


Sand  or  Dust 
Concentration 

Typical 
Conditions 

Air  Filter 
Replacemint 
Interval  (hrs| 

Minimum 

Light  or  medium  vehicle  traffic  on  paved  surface. 

Planes  taking  off  from  clean  runway. 

Infantry  movement  on  grassy  or  paved  surface. 

24 

Moderate 

Light  or  medium  truck  traffic  on  sandy  surface. 

Heavy  tank  traffic  on  paved  surface. 

Heavy  infantry  movement  on  sandy  or  dusty  surface. 

12 

High 

Light  truck  traffic  on  dusty  surface  on  windy  day. 
Medium  or  heavy  truck  traffic  on  dusty  surface. 
Light  lank  traffic  on  dusty  surface  on  calm  day. 

6 

Extreme 

Heavy  truck  traffic  on  dusty  surface  on  windy  day. 
Light  tank  traffic  on  dusty  surface  on  windy  day. 
Medium  or  heavy  tank  traffic  on  dusty  surface. 
Follow  2  1/2  ton  truck  on  dusty  surface. 

1 

2-116 


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MEDICAL  CUSTOMER  SHOPPING  GUIDE  (ALL  SUPPLY  CLASSES)  AND  THEATER 
ARMY  MEDICAL  MANAGEMENT  INFORMATION  SYSTEM  (TAMMIS)  INSTRUCTIONS 

FOR  SAUDI  ARABIA 


1.  In  order  to  ensure  more  responsive  medical  supply 
support  for  units  participating  in  Desert  Shield,  the  Army 
Surgeon  General's  Office  and  the  U.S.  Army  Medical  Materiel 
Agency  (USAMMA)  have  developed  a  Customer  Shopping  Guide 
for  medical  supplies.   The  shopping  guide  informs  customers 
where  current  stocks  are  located  and  the  levels  of 
stockage.   With  this  data,  customers  will  be  able  to 
determine  where  they  can  obtain  supplies  in  the  time  frames 
they  need  the  supplies. 

2.  The  TAMMIS  Customer  Guide  (TAB  A). 

a.  This  document  is  a  guide  to  customers  to  understand 
TAMMIS  and  products  that  TAMMIS  provides  to  customers. 

b.  The  TAMMIS  Customer  Reorder  List  (Page  A-3  of  the 
Customer  Guide)  is  the  key  document  for  customers  to 
manually  communicate  their  recjuest  to  the  U.S.  Army  Medical 
Materiel  Center  Saudi  Arabia  (USAMMCSA)  or  to  their 
supporting  Medical  Supply,  Optical  and  Maintenance  Unit 
(MEDSOM).   For  items  on  the  reorder  list,  the  customer  only 
needs  to  write  in  the  quantity  needed  for  an  item.   The 
USAMMCSA  currently  has  four  Customer  Reorder  Lists 
available  that  can  be  used  by  any  customer. 

(1)  Army  sick  call  list 

(2)  Army  trauma  treatment  list 

(3)  All  stocked  drugs  (6505) 

(4)  All  stocked  bandages  and  surgical  supplies 
(6510-6515) 

These  lists  are  available  in  either  stock  number  or 
nomenclature  sequence. 

c.  Customers  can  receive  a  tailored  Customer  Reorder 
List  for  items  they  use. 

d.  Customers  will  automatically  have  items  added  to 
their  reorder  list  each  month  as  they  order  items  that  were 
not  on  their  original  list. 

3.  For  your  convenience  the  Customer  Shopping  Guide-Saudi 
Arabia  Is  published  in  two  sequences: 

a.  Nomenclature/alphabetical  (TAB  B) . 

b.  National  Stock  number  (TAB  C) . 


198 


4.   How  to  read  the  Customer  Shopping  Guide: 

a.  If  an  item  has  a  quantity  in  the  USAMMCSA  column, 
it  is  stocked  at  the  USAMMCSA  and  the  delivery  time  should 
be  seven  days  or  less. 

b.  If  an  item  has  a  quantity  in  the  U.S.  Army  Medical 
Materiel  Center,  Europe  (USAMMCE)  column,  it  is  available 
in  Europe  and  will  have  a  routine  delivery  time  of  14  to  24 
days.   All  items  stocked  at  USAMMCE  are  medical  items 
frequently  used  by  medical  activities  In  Europe. 

c.  All  items  with  a  quantity  in  the  Defense  Personnel 
Support  Center/USAMKA  column  will  have  a  routine  delivery 
time  of  between  21  and  32  days  for  normal  requests. 


Colonel,  MS 
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